What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

Indiana Line model 1x

Ascoltare con Indiana Line significa provare, nel vostro ambiente di ascolto, le stesse sensazioni di un concerto dal vivo. Le dimensioni del cabinet, la scelta dei trasduttori, il sistema di ripartizione delle frequenze sono strettamente correlati per garantire linearita, efficienza, smorzamento ottimale ed assenza di distorsione.

Ogni componente e studiato nelle singole parti con attrezzature e disegni originali per consentire il massimo risultato con le tecnologie piu avanzate.

Modello 1x, diffusore a due vie.

Woofer 210 mm.

Tweeter - Phenolic Ring dome.

Potenza 40 Watt

Zingali Wfp & Bfp

Omniray® Horn is the distinguishing feature of all Zingali's creations assuring the utmost quality in sound reproduction. It is the most notable element of the enclosure and the company's pride.
The horn history at Zingali starts in the 80's with a traditional bi-radial model in wood, the forerunner of what would become the emblem of the company. It was used in the 8800 Studio Monitor line. Since the release of the first line of studio monitors Giuseppe Zingali kept on with his research in the field of horn acoustics trying to improve the quality of mid-high frequencies reproduction. He has analyzed the conventional circular exponential horn whose axial length is greater than its maximum diameter. Being its drawbacks like causing colorations and beaming effect in the high frequencies well known, Giuseppe Zingali tried to improve the sound emission by optimizing horn shape and proportions through numerous calculations and tests. The studies were concluded in 1995 and the idea that became the future of the company was the circular wooden horn of a particular shape now patented worldwide as Omniray ®Technology. The horn is carved of a solid piece of Yellow Poplar. Its curve characteristics and throat depth guarantee the most accurate reproduction of medium-high frequencies available today. The circular shape of the horn allows 360° radiation of sound with an angle of dispersion of up to 140°. The horn curve is not fully exponential but consists of parts described by specific formulas. Each part is “responsible” for the quality of reproduction of a certain frequency range. Together with the relatively short throat depth this allows to balance frequencies in the region from 500 Hz to 20 kHz within the limits of ± 1.5 dB.
When you look at a Zingali loudspeaker, its hand crafted wooden cabinet and the wooden horn in particular, you can't but think it's a kind of musical instrument. Traditionally many musical instruments are made of wood that normally is the key to the magic sound of a piano, a violin or a lute. Things have not changed since the times when these instruments were created. No matter how far the technology goes, a piano rim made of anything different from wood just has no sense. The Zingali loudspeakers are “alive” thanks to such a noble material as wood and natural colors of coating that emphasize its charm.
Omniray® Technology unites in harmony the geometry, materials and dedication of a true audio enthusiast to assure outstanding sensitivity of loudspeakers, improved dynamics and sound transparency. The optimum horn shape provides enough efficiency typical for horns but without distortions. Thanks to their sensitivity our loudspeakers can be matched perfectly even with low power valve amplifiers. They deliver striking clearness of sound and articulation even on low volume. The sound is detailed and true to the original no matter what musical genre you prefer. The typical characteristics of Zingali loudspeakers is the effect of performer's presence in the room be it voice or an orchestra.

System Type:  Bass reflex
Frequency Response:  32 - 21,000 Hz
Nominal Impedance:  8 Ω
Sensitivity:  98 dB  at 1m/1W
Crossover Frequency:  700 Hz, 12 dB/oct
Power Rms:  300 Watts
Recommended Power Amplifier:  10 - 500 Watts
Input System:  Bi-Wiring
Woofer:  390 mm - coil 100 mm
Compression Driver: 1" - coil 44 mm
Wooden Horn:  Omniray GZ 14"
Cabinet:  40 mm Mdf Black
Finish:  40 mm Solid Wood Cherry/Walnut/Natural
Dimensions (W x H x D): 112 x 52 x 75 mm
Weight:  70 kg net

Marantz Model 10B

Without question the Model 10B is the most advanced instrument of its kind today. This is the Tuner that was rated by Hi/Fi Stereo Review (December, 1965 issue) as " ... we have neverseen a tuner to compare with it ... so outstanding that it is literally in a class by itself." Marantz engineers have bypassed the inherent limitations of conventional circuits through the employment of bold new concepts and highly sophisticated electronic techniques. The performance of every circuit stage shows the dramatic order of improvement which can be achieved through creative inventiveness.

Now, with the introduction of the Marantz 10B, all the requirements for real high fidelity reception have been met. FM reception with the Model 10B, is comparable in every degree with the clarity and fidelity normally found only in stereo tapes and discs.

Performance properties of the 10B in regard to quieting, stereo separation and distortion are without precedent. Its combination of high sensitivity, ultra-sharp selectivity, fast quieting action and reduced susceptibility to multipath effects, ensures exceptional results in fringe area. While the advanced features and performance specifications appeal to the primarily technically inclined, the Model10B's simplicity of operation attracts the listener who is simply a lover of good music. In whatever case, the extent of the new high standard established by this fine instrument is recognized by all of critical judgement.

RF Section

The precision tuning capacitor has a "Linear frequency" characteristic so that station calibrations appear evenly and accurately spaced along a full 10" tuning dial. RF stages are balanced-tuned throughout. An important feature is the radar-type, balanced-bridge diode mixer.

IF Section

The unique Marantz IF circuit is based on the development of an "18-pole" phase-linear. The ideal characteristic of the filter passband permit performance improvements which are unobtainable with conventional coupled circuits. Phase-linearity in the 200 kc passband eliminates a major source of high-frequency distortion and loss of separation 108 dB/octave cutoff slopes make the Model 10B the most selective FM tuner in existence. The strongest signals have no deteriorating effect on its ideal passband characteristics. IF alignment is permanent, being unaffected by tube changes or normal aging.

Limiters and Discriminator

There are 9 limiters in the Model 10B using matched pairs of silicon planar diodes. Each IF stage is self-limiting, preventing overload on stronge signals, and eliminating the usual need for AGC circuits. Quieting on weak signals is close to the theoretical threshold, with ultimate quieting well in excess of 70 dB. The discriminator circuit is extremely linear, ensuring low distortion through the subchannel range.


The highly sophisticated Marantz circuit permits the inclusion of phase correction to maintain proper phase-amplitude relationships. This allows the use of an extremely effective SCA rejection filter witout the usual loss of separation at high frequencies. Separation is well in excess of 30 dB to 15 kc. The output filter circuit provides very sharp attenuation of residual sub-channel components above the audio range, eliminating noise and interference from SCA. Precision-gapped ferrite cup-cores or precision toroidal coils are used for all filters. Automatic stereo switching and inter-channel muting are both accomplished by means of ingenious electronically triggered photo-electric circuits.

Multipath- Tuning Indicator

In March 1962, Marantz introduced the concept of using an oscilloscope tube as a multipath and tuning indicator in the early prototypes of the Model 10. As each station is tuned, its correct center position on the passband is clearly displayed. Simultaneously, the presence of multipath becomes visible, making it quite easy to readjust the antenna for best results. A panel switch permits test display of the left and right FM channels, or external signals from tape recorders, discs, etc.


I.H.F. Sensitivity: 2 uv or better

Quieting Slope: 40 dB at 2 uv; 55 dB at 3,5 uv; 70 dB at 25 uv

6 IF Stages: Each with 3-pole phase-linear band-pass filter, IF bandwidth, 200 kc. Cutoff slopes 108 dB/octave

Selectivity Curve: Adjacent carrier - 42 dB; Alternate carrier - 150 dB

9 Dynamic Symmetrical-Aperture Limiters: Full limiting on noise

Ultra-Linear Discriminator: For low distortion through sub-channel range

Balanced-Bridge Diode Mixer

Automatic Stere Switching: Photoelectronic, with indicator light and threshold adjustment.

Interstation Muting: Photoelectronic, with defeat switch and threshold adjustment

Total Spurious Rejection: Better than 100 dB, Includes images, cross modulation, etc

Volume Sensitivity: 10 dB maximum (reached at 0,8 uv)

Harmonic Distortion: less than 0,2% at 15 kc after deemphasis, and less than 1% at detector

AM Rejection: At least 70 dB at 89% modulation with all signal levels

Separation: Approx. 45 dB average throughout the range. Better than 30 dB at 15 kc

Built-In Multipath/Tuning Indicator: 3" oscilloscope tube

Tuning Gang: Military type, silver plated, four balanced cections, ceramics spacers. Precision calibrated at 10 points.

Balanced 300 ohm Input


Front panel 15 x 5¾ inches; Chassis 14 wide x 15 deep inches.

Panel Finish: Gold anodizedto match Model7

Shipping Weight: 38lbs

Marantz Model 7T

Marantz deliberately withheld its entry into solid state products until it was possible to step into the position of leadership in this field. Now, Marantz engineers have develpoed new methods of solid state application to produce a circuit design equalling the matchless performance and dependabilility of the previously unmatched Marantz designed vacum tube 7C preamplifier.
The new Model 7T delivers unequalled specifications for low noise and low distortion, without the usual transistor problem of inadequate signal handling capacity or dynamic range. The widest dynamics excursions on your favorite record or tape will not overload the sensitive low-level phono stages.
This has not been possible in previous solid state equipment, since the quietest operation of a transistor is the very condition under which it will produce clipping and distortion with normal input signals. Marantz solid state circuitry now has solved this problem, and traditionally impeccable performance is assured in the new Marantz Model 7T Solid State Stereo Preamplifier.

2Front Panel Jacks
For recording, copying or playback with an external tape recorder.
Panel Headphone Jack
Built-in circuit for driving popular low or high impedance phones. Sound automatcally cuts off from speakers when headphones are plugged in.
Center Channel Output
Separate A + B mixing circuit with level control to drive one or two additional amplifiers for "center" channel or remote monophonic speakers. Low impedance output.
Tape Play / Tape Copy Switch
New circuit and switching permits tape recording playback or monitoring plus, duplication of tapes with front panel and rear panel recording outputs. They are capable of driving either low or high impedance recorders with low distortion. Stereo program material can be mixed and recorded monophonically if desired.
Other Features
Selector Switch with automatic equalization insertion, Mode Switch, precision Tracking Volume Control, Selectable-Curve Feedback Tone Control, High Filter, Rumble Filter, Power Switch, Output Level Adjustment for high or low efficiency speakers, Tape-head Equalizer Adjustment, 6/AC Convenience Outlets, Panel Headphone Jack, Panel Tape Recorder and Playback Jack, Two Center Channel Outputs.

Gain: Phono to main output - 64,5 dB; Phono to recording output - 42,5 dB; High level to main output - 22,5 dB
Frequency Response: 20 to 20,000 cps, ±1 dB
Total Noise: 20 to 20,000 cps; 80 dB below 10 mv input. (1uv equivalent broadband noise input with or without RIAA equalization)
I.M. Distortion: 0,15% at 10 volts RMS output
Total Harmonic Distortion: 0,05% at 1 volts RMS
High Filter: 9 kcp, 5 kcp
Low Filter: 50 cps, 100 cps
Hum and Noise: 100 dB below high level input
Signal to Noise Ratio: 100 dB
Dynamic Range, Phono Input: Approx. 100 dB above 1uv equivalent noise input. (1uv to 100 millivolts at less than 0,15% I.M.D.)
Weight: 9 lbs

Marantz SLT-12

Since the introduction of stereo discs, achieving the total signal of a stereo record and maximum channel separation has been a problem with conventional tracking tone arms. Marantz has solved that problem with the new SLT-12 Straight Line Tracking Turntable.

When the master disc is cut in the recording studio, the cutting head travels across the disc in a straight line. The grooves are cut proportionately to the volume of the sound; as the sound ebbs, the grooves narrow - as the sound swells, they broaden. Each side of the groove carries a separate track - one for each stereo channel. These grooves carry the total sound originally recorded.

The Marantz SLT-12 tone-arm tracks acrossthe disc in a straight line following the path originally created by the cutting head. Thus the stylus always tangent to the grooves, receives the full signal incised on each side of the groove. It is the only system available which faithfully reproduces the sound that was priginally recorded.

The critical elements of the Marantz SLT-12 Turntable provide maximum precision and atability in support of the tone-arm assembly. The free-floating stylus is always fully positioned in the groove by counter-balancing the tone-arm assembly. A 12 lb. cast and dynamically balanced turntable rests upon a massive, precision-ground tungsten carbide thrust bearing to produce low friction, dimensional stability. Power is derived from ahysteresis-synchronous motor. The precision-ground uscothane drive belt is noted for its uniquely stable elasticity. Push-button controls have been installed for convenience, while the cueing device eliminates the necessity of ever touching the tone-arm.

The SLT-12 system includes stereo cartridge with elliptical diamond stylus and walnut base.

Zero Tracking Error

Revolutionary straight line tracking arm holds stylus tangent to record groove at all times, eliminates inner groove tracking error distortion, skating force, and uneven stylus wear - al inherent in conventional arm design.

Rumble Free

12lb. heavyweight precision machined turntable, tungsten carbude thrust bearings and precision ground drive belt combine to provide maximum isolation from acoustical feedback with lowest possible rumble.

Widest Dynamic Range

marantz designed ultra-high compliance pick up and lightweight low mass arm produce finest tone quality and an unprecedented dynamic range.

Cueing Control

No need to ever touch pick up arm. Positive cueing control automatically places arm in desired groove-track, eliminating accidental scratching and damaging of prized recordings.

Obsolescence Protection

The only turntable system designed to precede the state of the art. Advances in cartridge development yet-to-come will obsolete most existing tone-arms. only the Marantz SLT-12 has the capacity to accommodate all future developments.


Platter: 12,76 lbs (non-magnetic)

Speeds: 33 and 45 RPM

Wow & Flutter: Better than 0,04%

Noise Floor: -112 dB (1,4 cm/s; 100 cps)

Tonearm: Tangential

Tracking Force Preste: 1g

Tracking Error: Non-existent. (0 degrees/inch)

Skating Force: Non-existent

Frequency Response: 20 to 20,00 cps

Compliance: 30 x 10⁻⁴ cm /dyne

Stylus: Diamond Elliptical (.0002 x .0009 radius)

Output: 6 mv; recommended load 47,000 ohms

Drive Principle: Precision Uscothane belt

Rumble: Virtually non-existent

Motor: Hysteresis Synchronous

Leveling: Precision bubble-level adjustment

Dimensions (including Walnut base): (Wide x High x Deep) 18¼ x 14 x 6½ inches

Weight: 27 lbs

Power Requirements: 117 V, 60 cycles (50 cycles available)

Marantz model 9 (1960 - 1968)

Marantz Model 9 Seventy Watt Amplifier
Sleek, efficient beauty hallmarks the unparalleled performance of this massive single-channel 70 watt amplifier. Here is the instrument that proves just how much difference an amplifier can make in high fidelity reproduction. Exceptional stability and low distortion team with its tremendous reserves of power to produce the finest sound available today. Its precision design and construction is mirrored at every point - from superb transient response to the built-in metered adjustments. If you've a taste for luxury and a desire for the purest of sound reproduction, satisfy it with the Marantz Model 9.

Power: 70 watts continuous - 140 watts peak. Switch for 40 watt triode operation.
Response: At full rated power; within 0,1 dB - 20 cps to 20 kc; within 1 dB - 12 cps to 40 kc. At 0,5 watt, within 1 dB - 3 cps to 40 kc
Harmonic Distortion: At full rated power; less than 0,1% at mid-frequencies, less than 0,33% - 20 cps and 20 kc.
I.M. Distortion: less than 0,5% at full rated power.
Hum & Noise: better than 100 dB below 70 watts.
Damping Factor: 17. Damping factor may be changed internally by adding current feedback.
Output Impedances: 4, 8 and 16 ohms, plus 1 ohm tap for center-speaker conection.

Construction: Instrument type, precision construction throughout. Circiut assembled on rigid heavy-duty terminal board with machined, silver plated turret-terminals. Wiring connections neatly cabled. Silicon diode B + and bias supplies, with Zener regulation for first stage. Three Sprague type 17D telephone-grade electrolytic capacitors. Over-sized transformers for very cool operation. Heavy front panel with precision-machined knobs, precision d'Arsonval meter, etc.
Test Section: Complete built-in instrument for self-testing and balancing of output and driver tubes. Adjustments for balance of driving signal. The circuit includes five scrowdriver adjustments, a seven-position test switch, and an accurately calibrated d'Arsonval meter. These simple adjustments eliminate the need for matched output tubes and assure optimum performance despite normal tube aging.
Controls: All controls, adjustments and connections with the exception of the Triode switch, are accessible from the front.
Gain Control: Isolated by cathode-follower / phase-reversal circuit.
Phase Switch: For securing corect phase relation (A +B) of phantom center channel speakers fed by two amplifiers.
Low Filter: Subsonic cut-off filter, less than 0,25 dB @ 20 cps - 20 dB @ 3 cps
Test Switch: For bias (plate current) readings for each tube. Built-in test signal for dynamic balance adjustment. Five bias and balance adjustments, as well as all input and output connections are located under snap-out panel
Tube Complement: 2 x 6DJ8/ECC88; 1 x 6CG8; 4 x 6CA7/EL34; 1 Zener Diode; 5 Silicon rectifiers.
Overall Dimensions: 15⅜" x 8¼" x 10½" (W x H x D); Panel 15⅜" x 7¾" (W x H)
Shipping Weight: 60 lbs

Mitsubishi LT-30

The LT-30 is a late mode linear tracking design, thus containing all the advanced technology for tracking precision. It tracks the record precisely as the original masters are cut; in perfect tangency with the groove for the absolute minimum distortion.
The LT-30, also known as the Diatone LT-3, was introduced in 1980 as the pinnacle of Mitsubishi ‘s Linear Tracking turntables. The goal of every linear tracking turntable is to mimic the position of the cutting head as was during the master cut, yet few can track as precisely as the LT-30. Straight-line tracking completely eliminates the problems of tracking error and stylus overhang. Anti-Skating correction is unnecessary because the system exerts no skating force. External forces acting on the stylus are in complete balance. Further, the tangential arm is much lighter than conventional arms, since it is much shorter. For these reasons, the LT-30 transliterates records with unprecedented clarity and amazing sonic accuracy.
Some other features of the LT-30 include
Fully Automatic Operation -Just press play and the arm is set into motion into the lead in groove. It returns to arm rest when the end of the record is reached. Controls are provided to advance the tonearm in either direction as well as pickup/set down.
Auto Record Size Detection -Size of record is automatically detected and correct speed is set. Speed can be manually changed at any time.
Multiple Tonearm Adjustments -Tracking force, tracking angle, tonearm height, stylus height are all user adjustable
Repeat Feature -this feature allows play of the same record repeatedly.
Tracking Error Indicators -a 3 light display shows when optimal tracking is achieved

Phono Motor Section
Type: Electronically controlled fully automatic operation
Drive Mechanism: Direct Drive
Motor: Quartz PLL DC Servo Motor
Diameter: 312mm (12 5/16”)
Weight: 1.5kg. (3.3lbs)
Material: Aluminum diecast
Platter Speed: 33 1/3, 45 rpm
Wow & Flutter: 0.024% (Wrms) +/-0.04% (Wp-p, DIN 45-507)
Signal to Noise Ratio: 65dB (IEC-B), 78dB (DIN 450539)
Type: Straight type universal static balanced
Overall Length: 225mm (8 7/8”)
Effective Length: 175mm (6 7/8”)
Tracking Error: Less than 0.05°
Possible Cartridge Weight: 10-16g
Power Consumption: 15W
Dimensions: 19 1/16” W x 7 ½” H x 17 ¼” D
Weight: 32 lbs unpacked

Marantz 8B (1962)

Model 8B Dual Thirty-five, Stereophonic Power Amplifier

In this ultra-linear high performance amplifier, Marantz offers you all the beauty of contemporary design. With its optional grille snapped into place, the kodel 8B presents a smooth, uncluttered appearance consistent with the precision of its contemporary electronics. All connections are made in the rear to permit neat installation. Wherever you place the Model 8B its beauty will attract, its name will enhance, its performance will satisfy and endure.

The Model 8B is essentially two 35 watt amplifiers on one compact chassis. Built-in metered adjustments assure balanced performance of both channels.

Power Output per Channel: 35 watts (70 watts peak) "Ultra-Linear" operation. Nearly 20 watts of excellent Triode operation can be obtained by altering two connections inside chassis.

Response (at 35 watts): Within 0,2 dB from 20 cps to 20 kc (equivalent of ± 0,1 dB). Within 1 dB from 15 cps to 40 kc into "Grid" input. At 0,5 watt: ±1 dB from 3 cps to 40 kc. Response has been deliberately rolled off approx. 7 dB at 100 kc to control transient response. Subsonic Filter in standard "Input" alowly rolls response off below 20 cps (less than 1 dB at 20 cps: -10 dB at 3 cps. etc)

Distortion (THD at 35 watts): Less than 0,1% at midfrequencies. Less than 0,5% from 20 cps to 20kc. Intermodulation distortion at 35 watts equivalent (70 watts peak): Less than 0,5% (60 cps/12 kc, 4:1): (I.M. messurement of typical amplifier: 35 W. equiv. 0,5%; 30 W equiv. 0,28%; 20 W equiv. 0,17%; 10 W equiv. 0,11%). Distortion below 35 W is largely of second order, and reduces rapidly with signal level.

Inverse Feedback and Stability: 20 dB of overall feedback. Great care has been taken to ensure stability and low distortion under widely varying loads, both resistive and reactive, such as are encounterd in loudspeaker systems. Power supply surges are balanced out of signal channels providingexcellent recovery from strong transients. Will not oscillate under any condition of open circuit capacitive load.

Motored Tests and Adjustments: Built-in meter and test switch provide accurate adjustment of each output tube bias. This makes the use of matched tubes unnecessary.

Adjustable Dynamic Balance (located subchassis) pre-set at factory.

Damping Factors: Greater than 20 from 20 cps to 20 kc (instructions given for optional insertion by the customer of two additional resistors to provide damping factors of 2, 11, or 0,5)

Output Connections: 4, 8 and 16 ohms

Input Sensitivity(for 35 watts): 1,3 volts RMS into 250K

Hum: Better than 100 dB below 35 watts containing proportionatelylittle of high orer harmonics.

Power Supply: The use of Silicon rectifiers, three telephone quality electrolytics and choke, provide excellent regulation, and thorough filtering, together with long life.

Power Requirements: Design center: 117 volts, 60 cycles. Range: 105 - 125 volts, 50/60 cycles.

170 watts of zero signal; 250 watts of maximum signal.

Tube Complement: 2 x 6BH6, 2 x 6CG7, 4 x EL34/6CA7

Dimensions: 13½ x 7¼ x 10½ inches (wide x high x deep)

Weight (shipping): 55 lbs

Klipsch Belle (1971)

The Klipsch Belle was originally introduced in 1971 and today it is considered the queen of the Klipsch heritage line. It is the only speaker system Paul Klipsch designed with a woman in mind, his wife whom he named the speaker after. As the story goes, Belle Klipsch wanted a less obtrusive, pleasing to the eye speaker system for their living room, yet without compromising the trademark Klipsch sound. Starting with the enclosure design of the famed La Scala system, Paul Klipsch tweaked the proportions of cabinet to give it a more balanced look and “beautified” it with grille cloth and high-grade veneer. Of course Belle couldn’t have been more pleased with the results, not to mention the thousands of wives thereafter. The Belle has a truly timeless esthetic appeal that seems to get even better with age.
While the Belle Klipsch has been called the most beautiful heritage speaker system of all time, not many were sold. It is pretty much sonically identical to the La Scala system, which was priced approximately 55% lower (85% lower if you settled for a pair of unfinished Scalas) then the Belles. Because the buying demographic of Klipsch speakers was predominantly men, most of which weren’t concerned with style, you can understand why paying a premium for beauty was not appealing. Ironically, today, of all the Klipsch Heritage systems, the Belle has seen the biggest increase in value because there are relatively so few around.

K-77-M High Frequency Driver/Horn
The famed compression driver /horn tweeter gives you vivid, sparkling high frequency detail beyond the range of audibility. You hear a sharply focused, lifelike stereo image. Dynamic range is breathtaking. Distortion is nowhere to be heard.
K-55-V Alnico Mid Range Driver/Exponential Metal Horn
Midrange frequencies are the most critical to your enjoyment of music. In the Belle, these frequencies are capably handled by a powerful, smooth sounding compression driver/horn assembly. This midrange driver assists the Belle, in delivering an amazing 104 decibels of sound pressure when operating on just one watt of input power. This results in awesome dynamic range and distortion free response.
K-33 Woofer
The K-33 fully takes advantage of it folded bass horn cabinet. Deep full-bodied bass that is not only heard but felt!
Type AA Crossover
The passive crossover network of the Belle, is a vital component to the overall performance of the system and is a classic example of the KLIPSCH dedication to engineering excellence. This network takes incoming electrical information and assigns it to the proper driver to achieve the smoothest frequency response.

Unmatched Craftsmanship
KLIPSCH cabinetry is the immediately evident indicator of the construction quality that has made KLIPSCH famous. Meticulously crafted by the finest craftsman in the business. Each pair is precisely matched for color and grain structure. One tiny flaw in one speaker and the pair is destroyed. The cabinet of the Belle, is also critical to its bass response since a large part of this cabinet forms the woofer horn.
Belle Folded Bass Horn
The Belle’s folded horn woofer has long been the marvel of audio enthusiasts and engineers alike. The horn has always been the most efficient means of reproducing sound. But for deep bass, a horn of considerable length is required. KLIPSCH long ago solved this problem by "folding" a horn into a more compact size, resulting in unmatched bass reproduction.


POWER HANDLING: 100 w max continuous (400 w peak)
SENSITIVITY: 103 dB @ 1watt/1meter
K-77-F 1" (2.54 cm) Phenolic diaphragm compression driver
K-55-X 2" (5.08 cm) Phenolic diaphragm compression driver
Exponential Horn
K-33-E 15" Fiber-composite cone / folded horn-loaded
Birch Plywood and Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)
Fully horn-loaded
35.625" x 30.125" x 18.75" (90.5 x 76.5 x 47.6 cm)
125 lbs. (56.75 kg)
Walnut Lacquer, Mahogany Lacquer, Medium Oak Lacquer, Black Lacquer, and Unfinished Oak

Sony CDP 705ESD (1987-1989)

The ES Series:
The next step in digital audio, from the creator of the compact disc.
Sony has been the leader in both professional and home digital audio for over a decade. With such breakthroughs as PCM processors, Compact Disc Players and Digtal Audio Tape recorders. Now, the Sony ES engineerss, a dedicated group who are above the compromise between technology, convenience and price, have created the ES Series. Each component in the ES Series represents an ES engineer's dream. Once you.ve heard them, you'll want to own them.

The ES Series: Proof positive that Sony is still the leader in digital audio.
When the ES engineers created the ES Series, they had permanence in mind. These components will please their owners for years to come. All ES components, including our integrated amplifiers, tuners, cassette decks and digital processors, are designed with meticulous detail and built with extreme care. That's why Sony backs each ES component with a three-year parts and labor limited warranty.

The CDP-705ESD:
A new benchmark in a series of reference standard Compact Disc players.
like all the new Sony ES Series CD Players, the 705ESD offers 4X oversampling and full 16-bit dual D/A converters. But as an ES Digital component, the 705ESD must provide even more. Such as special waveform shift circuits that avoid crossover and notch distortion at low voltage levels for superb linearity. Or an advanced digital-to-analog converter deglitcher that improves music resolution at all listening levels. Most important of all , the 705ESD has a direct digital output stage for the digital needs of tomorrow.
Direct Digital Output: A Sony first that connects the present to the future.
In 1985, Sony pioneered the concept of processing data through an outboard D/A converter, to avoid the normal restrictions imposed by chassis size, signal path integration and heat degradation. Now, any digital music source can be reproduced with more depth, detail and imaging than ever before.
4X oversampling digital filter; 16-bit dual D/A converters; deglitcher stage; Unlinear Converter "master clock"; linear phase filters; Error Prediction Logic; aspheric optical lens; Linear Motor tracking; low-resonance G-Chassis; dual power transformwrs; Optical Transfer stage; digital output

System: Compact Disc digital audio system
Disc: Compact Disc
Laser: Semiconductor laser (λ = 780nm)
Laser output: Max. 0,4 mW
Spindle speed: 200 rpm to 500 rpm (CLV)
Scan velocity: 1,2 - 1,4 m/sec.
Error correction: Sony Super Strategy Cross Interleave Reed Solomon Code
Number of channel: Two
D/A conversion: 16-bit linear
Frequency response: 2 - 20,000 Hz ±0,3 dB
Signal to noise ratio: More than 106 dB
Dynamic range: More than 97 dB
Harmonic distortion: Less than 0,0025% (1 kHz)
Channel separation: More than 100 dB (1kHz)
Wow and flutter: Below measurable limit
Output jacks:
Max.output level: 2 V (50 kΩ)
Load impedence: More than 10 kΩ
Output impedance: 200 Ω
Max. output level: 0 - 2 Vrms (50 kΩ)
Load impedance: More than 30 kΩ
Output impedance: 200 - 2,5 kΩ
Max. output level: 0,5 Vp-p
Load impedance: 75 Ω
Output impedance: 75 Ω
Max. output level: 28 mW (variable, max)
Load impedance: 32 Ω
Track pitch: 1,6 μm
Sampling frequency: 44,1 kHz
Quantization: 16 bit linear quantizing/channel
Modulatio system: EFM
Transfer rate: 2,03 Mbit/sec. (before modulation)
Power requirements: 120 V AC, 60 Hz
Power consumption: 20 W
Power requirements: 220 - 240 V AC, 50 Hz
Dimensions: 430 x 125 x 395 mm, (17 x 5 x 15⁵⁄₈ inches)
Weight: 14,1 kg, (31 lb 1 oz) net

Sony TA-E77ESD (1987-1989)

The ES Series:

The next step in digital audio, fromthe creator of the compact disc.

Sony has been the leader in both professional and home digital audio for over a decade. With such breakthroughs as PCM processors, Compact Disc Players and Digtal Audio Tape recorders. Now, the Sony ES engineerss, a dedicated group who are above the compromise between technology, convenience and price, have created the ES Series. Each component in the ES Series represents an ES engineer's dream. Once you.ve heard them, you'll want to own them.

The ES Series: Proof positive that Sony is still the leader in digital audio.

When the ES engineers created the ES Series, they had permanence in mind. These components will please their owners for years to come. All ES components, including our integrated amplifiers, tuners, cassette decks and digital processors, are designed with meticulous detail and built with extreme care. That's why Sony backs each ES component with a three-year parts and labor limited warranty.

The TA-E77ESD:

The future of digital signal processing.

The TA-E77ESD preamplifier provides three digital inputs for direct interfacing with both current and future digital components, plus decoding at three different sampling rates. It also has a digital processing loop for high-quality recording. The 4X oversampling, 16 -bit, dual D/A converters are totally shielded in a copper subchassis that prevents spurious noise from affecting the analog circuits. Direct coupling of the D/A converter simplifies the signal path and minimizes internal interference.

The TA-E77ESD includes many features that are difficult to find on other preamplifiers at any price. Even a programmable infrared Remote Commander that controls any brand of audio and video component with infrared operation.


Decodes 32kHz/44,1kHz/48kHz sampling rates; 3 digital inputs;digital output stage; digital processing loop; 4X oversampling digital filter; 16-bit dual D/A converters; copper-shielded subchassis;direct-coupled D/A stage; low-resonance G-Chassis; separate audio/video signal paths; high-resolution (S-video) input/output terminals; REC OUT selector


Total harmonic distortion: 0,001% (at rated 20-20,000 Hz output)

Intermodulation distortion (60 Hz : 7 kHz = 4:1): 0,001% (at rated output)

Residual noise: Less than 10μV (network A)

Requency response:

PHONO MM: RIAA equalization curve ±0,2 dB

TUNER, CD, TAPE, VIDEO, ADAPTOR IN: 3 Hz - 300 kHz +0 -3 dB

Input sensitivity:

PHONO MC 3 ohms: 0,17 mV, 100 ohms,

PHONO MC 40 ohms: 0,17 mV, 1 kohm

PHONO MM: 2,5 mV, 50 kohms


Max. Input capability (1 kHz):

PHONO (1 kHz, THD 0,003%): 9 mV (MC); 150 mV (MM)

S/N (network):

PHONO MC (0,5 mV): 83 dB

PHONO MM (5 mV): 95 dB


Output voltage impedance:

REC, VIDEO, DAT, ADAPTOR: 150 mV 1 kohm

HEADPHONES: 45 milliwatts at 8 ohms (accepts low and high impedance headphones)

PRE OUT: 1,5 V, 47 ohms G-AEP model : 1,5 V 200 ohms

Tone controls:

BASS at 100 Hz: -4 +3,5 dB (turnover freq. 200 Hz); -6 +7 dB (turnover freq. 400 Hz)

TREBLE at 10 kHz: -7,5 +7 dB (turnover freq 3 kHz); ±3,5 dB (turnover freq. 5 kHz)

Subsonic filter: 6 dB/octave attenuation below 15 Hz


Input: Voltage 1 Vp-p, impedance 75 ohms

Output: Voltage 1 Vp-p, impedance 75 ohms

S-Video IN, VIDEO 1, 2:

Luminance signal: Voltage 1 Vp-p, impedance 75 ohms

Chroma signal: Voltage 0,286 Vp-p, impedance 75 ohms


Luminance signal: Voltage 1 Vp-p, impedance 75 ohms

Chroma signal: Voltage 0,286 Vp-p, impedance 75 ohms


Digital input (phono jacks): Impedance 75 ohms, input level (sensitivity) 0,5 Vp-p ±20%

Digital output: Impedance 75 ohms, output level (voltage) 0,5 Vp-p ±20%


System: low-noise FET high gain NFB type equalizer amplifier, low noise FET, Double-stage differential, push-pull output, flat amplifier passive type direct tone control

Number of channels: 2 (stereo)

Demodulation (D/A conversion): 16-bit linear

Frequency response: 5 Hz - 20 kHz ±0,5 dB (input digital signal sampling freq. 44,1 kHz, 16-bit operation)

Harmonic distortion: Less than 0,004% at 1 kHz (input digital signal sampling freq. 44,1 kHz, 16-bit operation)

Dynamic range: More than 95 dB ( input digital signal sampling freq. 44,1 kHz, 16-bit operation)

Channel separation: More than 90 dB

Power requirements: 120, 220-240 V AC, 50/60 Hz

AC outlets: 400 W max.

Dimensions: (W x H x D) 470 x 130 x 370 mm, (18½ x 5¼ x 14½ inches)

Weight: 13 kg, (28 lb 11 oz)

Sony TA-N77ES (1987-1989)

The ES Series: The next step in digital audio, fromthe creator of the compact disc.

Sony has been the leader in both professional and home digital audio for over a decade. With such breakthroughs as PCM processors, Compact Disc Players and Digtal Audio Tape recorders. Now, the Sony ES engineerss, a dedicated group who are above the compromise between technology, convenience and price, have created the ES Series. Each component in the ES Series represents an ES engineer's dream. Once you.ve heard them, you'll want to own them.

The ES Series: Proof positive that Sony is still the leader in digital audio.

When the ES engineers created the ES Series, they had permanence in mind. These components will please their owners for years to come. All ES components, including our integrated amplifiers, tuners, cassette decks and digital processors, are designed with meticulous detail and built with extreme care. That's why Sony backs each ES component with a three-year parts and labor limited warranty.

The TA-N77ES:

Apower amplifier worthy of the Sony ES name.

Even the most advanced components require superior amplifier performance. The TA-N77ES deliveres 200 watts of continuous power per channel into 8 ohms and has the operating stability to deliver 660 watts ofdynamic power into a 1 ohm load.

A Spontaneous Twin Drive design with separate voltage and current stages helps reduce cross-interference. And the oversized power transformer and high-current non-switching discrete output stage provide additional power on demand.


200 watts per channel, both channels driven into 8 ohms, 270 watts per channel, into 4 ohms; Spontaneous Twin Drive (STD) design; 520 VA power transformer; non-conductive, low-resonance G-Chassis; high-current, non-switching discrete output stage.

System: Super legato linear, purecomplementary SEPP power amplifier, powerful power supply

Power requirements: 120,220-240 V AC, 50/60 Hz

Power consumption: 380 W (US model), 490 W (UK model)

Dimensions: (W x H x D) 470 x 185 x 440 mm, ( 18⁵⁄₈ x 7³⁄₈ x 17³⁄₈ inches)

Weight: 25 kg, (55 lb 2 oz) net

Continuous RMS power output (both channels driven simultaneously):

2 x 270 W (4 Ω, 20-20,000 Hz, THD 0,006%);

2 x 230 W (6 Ω, 20-20,000 Hz, THD 0,005%);

2 x 200 W (8 Ω, 20-20,000 Hz, THD 0,004%)

Dynamic power:

660 W, 1 ohm;

800 W, 2 ohms;

520 W, 4 ohms;

370 W, 6 ohms;

300 W, 8 ohms

Power bandwidth (IHF):

10 Hz - 100 kHz, (4 ohms, 0,02%)

10 Hz - 100 kHz, (8 ohms, THD 0,02%)

Dynamic haedroom ('78 IHF):

2,8 dB (4 ohms);

1,8 dB, (8 ohms)

Total harmonic distortion:

0,004%, (4 ohms at 10 watt output);

0,003%, (6 ohms at 10 watt output);

0,018%, (8 ohms at 10 watt output)

Intermodulation (IM) distortion (60 Hz: 7 kHz = 4:1):

0,006%, (4 ohms at rated output);

0,005%, (6 ohms at rated output);

0,004%, (8 ohms at rated output)

Damping factor: 100 (8 ohms, 1 kHz)

Slew rate: 150V/μsec, 300 V/μsec (iside)

Residual noise: 1 Hz - 200 kHz, +0 -3 dB

Input sensitivity: 1 V, 30 kohms

S/N (network) 78 IHF: 120 dB (A)


In may of 1983, Kyocera introduced a CD player with true 16-bit digital filters. Today, the competition's calling this circuit "the latest thing". Years ago we had four-times oversampling. This year every high-end player worth mentioning has a similar design. In september, 1984 Kyocera raised some eyebrows with the world's first Fine Ceramics anti-resonant CD chassis. Now the stores are full of flimsy imitations.
How did all these innovations happen to come from Kyocera, and not some household name? perhaps because kyocera's knowledge of digital circuitry comes fromyears of building computers for some of the best-known names in electronics. perhaps because Kyocera is a world leader in Fine Ceramics, the technology used to house circuitry in aerospace and other advanced applications. Or perhaps beacouse some top-rated CD players form other brands were actually made by Kyocera.

Now Kyocera has four world-beating Compact Disc Players, ranging in suggested retail price from $ 350 to the $800 model DA-710CX shown here. Each boasts technology so advanced, it's a preview of what the competition will be selling in 1989. After all, history does repeat itself.

Nakamichi CR-7A

The CR-7A from Nakamichi is a direct drive, three-head cassette deck with Dolby B and Dolby C noise reduction. The deck features manual playback azimuth tuning, asymmetrical dual-capstan transport, auto calibration of azimuth, level and bias andwireless remote control. The display shows remaining time elapsed time, or a four-digit counter reading in all transport modes including fast-forward and rewind. Other features include auto repeat, memoty stop, timer recording/playback, and a two-speed master fader control.

Escape from the ordinary.

Escape to the realism of Nakamichi sound.

The Nakamichi CR-7A Discrete-Head Cassette Deck - the most convenient - and sophisticated - recording instrument conceived by man. It selects equalization automatically - yet you can override the choice. It adjusts azimuth, level and bias automatically - yet you can match azimuth to any tape - from your armchair - with a wirless remote control. Its real-time counter readselapsedtime and time remaining. It will even fade out a recording just before the end - if you'd like.


Main Unit

Track Configuration: 4 tracks/2-channel stereo

Heads: 3 (1 x erase, 1 x record, 1 x playback)


Tape Transport: FG servo brushless, slotless, coreless DD motor (capstan drive), DC motor (reel drive)

Mechanism: DC motor (cam drive), DC motor (playback head azimuth control)

Power Source: 100, 120, 120/220-240, 220 or 240 V AC 50/60 Hz

Power Consumption: 55 W max.

Tape Speed: 1-7/8 ips. (4,8 cm/sec.) ±0,5%

Wow-and-Flutter: Less than ±0,048% WTD Peak; Less than 0,027% WTD RMS

Frequency response: 18 - 21,000 Hz ±3 dB; 20 - 20,000 Hz ±2 dB

Signal-to-Noise Ratio:

Dolby C-Type NR on [70 μs, ZX tape] Better than 72 dB (400 Hz, 3% THD, IHF A-WTD RMS)

Dolby B-Type NR on [70 μs, ZX tape] Better than 66dB (400 Hz, 3% THD, IHF A- WTD RMS)

Total Harmonic Distortion: Less than 0,8% (400 Hz, 0 dB, ZX tape); Less than 1,0% (400 HZ, 0 dB, SX, EXII tape)

Erasure: Better than 60 dB (100 Hz, +10 dB)

Separation: Better than 37 dB (1 kHz, 0 dB)

Crosstalk: Better than 60 dB (1 kHz, 0 dB)

Bias Frequency: 105 kHz

Input (Line): 50 mV/40k ohms


Line: 1,0 V (400 Hz, 0 dB, output levelcontrol at max.) 2,2k ohms;

Headphones: 12 mW into 8 ohms (400 Hz, 0 dB, output level control at max.)

Fast-Wind Time: Approx. 80 sec. (with C-60 cassette)

Dimensions: (WxHxD) 435 x 135 x 306 mm, ( 17 x 5⁵⁄₁₆ x 12 inches)

Weight: 9,0 kg, (19 lbs. 13 oz)

Remote Control Unit RM-7C (supplied with CR-7A)

System: Infrared pulse system

Power Suply: DC 3 V (1,5 V x 2)

Dimensions: (WxHxD) 57 x 19 x 175 mm, ( 2¼ x ¾ x 6 inches)

Weight: 140 g, (5 oz)

Denon DP-60L (1980)

Quartz PLL Servo-Controlled Direct-Drive turntable (1980)
The DP-60L is an extremely versatile high quality quartz-lock controlled turntable system that meets the high standards demanded by today's sophisticatesd audiophiles. This DENON turntable featuring the DENON QUARTZ SYSTEM, is the ultimate in original design technology. And for added versatility, the lightweight (5,5 g) tonearm can be replaced with the universal S-type. The whisper-quiet AC servo motor combined with DENON's quartz-lock servo control, drives the turntable at previously unheard of limits of accuracy.

A no-contact end sensor auto-lift mechanism.
The lightweight straight tonearm makes full allowance for high-compliance certridge performance.
Integrated shell and universal cartridge adaptability through the replaceable universal S-type tonearm.
Ahigh-precision turntable speed control servo system that combines magnetic pulse and quartz lock systems for flawless two-way servo control.
Smooth, whisper-quiet AC servo motor.
Feather-touch black-lit control buttons.
Mirror finish, high-density Bubinga veneer laminated cabinet combines vibration resistance, solid weight and good looks.

Phone motor part
Motor: AC servomotor
Speed control: Both-directions servo DENON Quartz
Number of rotations: 33⅓ or 45 RPM
Wow and flutter: Below 0.01(0.015/0.02) % w.RMS
Number-of-rotations deflection: Less than 0.002%
Signal to noise ratio: 78 dB or more
Starting time: Less than (33⅓) 1.5 seconds
Load characteristic: 0% (the needle pressure 100 g outermost circumference)
Voltage characteristic: It is 0% to 90 - 110 V.
Turntable: Aluminum die-casting 30.8 cm
Arm part
Form: Static balance with dumping It is really [ shell ] straight-way-type & S type.
Active length: 244mm
Overhang: 14mm
Needle pressure regulation: 2.5 g (0.1 g of one scale) of one rotation
Conformity cartridge tare: Straight-way type: 4 - 10 g
S form: Shell is about 12 - 18 g.
Height regulation: 4.5 mm
Cabinet: It is 20 mm of specular surface finish thickness high-density particle which stuck bubinga native wood.
Power consumption: 14.5 W
Dimensions:(width, height, depth) 485 x 180 x 410 mm
Weight: About 13 kg

McIntosh MR 85

The MR85 AM/FM Tuner is an elegant instrument that allows
you to enjoy outstanding music reproduction. It includes
a wide range of convenient operating functions to
enhance your listening experience. The classic McIntosh
MR85 will perfectly compliment a McIntosh System of
incomparable performance and style.

Performance Features
• Special FM RF Amplifier
Double-Diffused Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor
(DMOS-FET) RF amplifier increases sensitivity and Cross
Modulation rejection.
• External AM RF Amplifier and Antenna
The included RAA1 Remote AM Antenna contains an electrostatically
shielded AM RF Amplifier Stage and can be
located in a remote area away from sources of interference
assuring the best possible reception.
• Flywheel Manual Tuning and Automute
A newly designed, optically encoded weighted flywheel
system makes ‘dialing in’ stations a breeze. Reminiscent of
the dial-cord flywheel tuning method found in classic
McIntosh Tuners. The MR85 automatically mutes when
manually tuning between stations, yet provides the ability
to be switched off when searching for very weak stations.
• FM Stereo Auto Blend Circuitry and Spatial Sound Enhancement
An automatic variable stereo separation control circuit is
used to reduce background noise when receiving weak stereo
stations. A sound Spatializer circuit can be selected for
Tuner 1 Enhancement. This circuit can expand the sound
field for FM stations with poor separation; it also provides
a pseudo-stereo effect for AM stations.
• Optional Second Tuner Module
The McIntosh TM1 Tuner Module may be added to the
MR85 by your Dealer and is the most economical way to
add a second tuner to a system. This is ideal for applications
where two tuners may be used at the same time, such
as Multizone Systems or listening to one station while recording
another station.
• Preset Stations and Custom Preset Naming
Nine AM and nine FM station presets with custom naming
(any desired name may contain up to eight characters) for
each tuner module make it easy to listen to your favorite
stations. For example, FM Preset Number 3 (92.50MHz)
can be renamed “JAZZ 7”, or “WXYZ”. The station presets,
custom naming and functions modes are retained in
Permanent Memory even when AC power is turned off.
• Alphanumeric Fluorescent Display
The Multifunction Front Panel Display indicates station
frequency, station preset number, custom naming, signal
strength, stereo and broadcast band. The display intensity is
fully adjustable.
• Adjustable Output Level and Remote Control Capable
Both Tuner 1 and the optional Tuner 2 have Variable Outputs
which can be used to match audio levels between various
sources. When used in conjunction with a McIntosh
Control Center or Multizone Controller, tuning functions
can be performed with a remote control.

FM Tuner Specifications

Useable Sensitivity: 14dBF which is 1.4uV across 75 ohms
50dB Quieting Sensitivity:
Mono: 19dBF which is 2.4uV across 75 ohms
Stereo: 35dBF which is 15uV across 75 ohms
Signal To Noise Ratio:
Mono: 75dB
Stereo: 70dB
Frequency Response:
Mono: + 0, - 1dB from 20 to 15,000Hz
Stereo: + 0, - 1dB from 20 to 15,000Hz
Harmonic Distortion:
Mono: 0.3% at 100Hz
0.3% at 1,000Hz
0.3% at 10,000Hz
Stereo: 0.45% at 100Hz
0.45% at 1,000Hz
0.65% at 10,000Hz
Intermodulation Distortion:
Mono: 0.25%
Stereo: 0.45%
Capture Ratio: 1.2dB
Alternate Channel Selectivity: 75dB
Spurious Response: 100dB
Image Response: 75dB
RF Intermodulation: 65dB
Stereo Separation:
45dB at 100Hz
45dB at 1,000Hz
35dB at 10,000Hz
SCA Rejection: 65dB

AM Tuner Specifications
Sensitivity: 20uV External Antenna Input
Signal To Noise Ratio:
48dB at 30% modulation
58dB at 100% modulation
Harmonic Distortion: 0.5% maximum at 50% modulation
Frequency Response: 50Hz to 6kHz NRSC
Adjacent Channel Selectivity: 45dB minimum IHF
Image Rejection: 65dB minimum from 540kHz to 1600kHz
IF Rejection: 80dB minimum

General Specifications
Rated Output:
Fixed output: 1.2 Volts
Variable output: 0 - 1.2 Volts
Output Impedance: Less than 100 ohms
Power Requirements:
100 Volts, 50/60Hz at 20 watts
110 Volts, 50/60Hz at 20 watts
120 Volts, 50/60Hz at 20 watts
220 Volts, 50/60Hz at 20 watts
230 Volts, 50/60Hz at 20 watts
240 Volts, 50/60Hz at 20 watts
Note: Refer to the rear panel of the MR85 for the correct voltage.
Overall Dimensions:
Width is 17-1/2 inches (44.5cm)
Height is 6 inches(15.3cm) including feet
Depth is 19 inches (48.3cm) including Front Panel and Knob
25.5 pounds (11.6 Kg) net, 43 pounds (19.5 Kg) in shipping carton