What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

B&W DM-310

Bowers & Wilkins DM310
Stand-mount/Bookshelf loudspeaker system
Product Summary
- The DM310 is a completely new two-way vented box system designed to provide improved performance for domestic hi-fi users through lower coloration, higher power handling and greater dynamics.
- The 8in low frequency drive unit features a critically contoured re-inforced polypropylene diaphragm, which is coupled to an energy damping PVC surround resulting in lower coloration.
Technical highlights
- The use of a aluminium domed tweeter immediately distinguishes the two models. The specially created 25mm (1in) tweeter enables high power handling to cope with the heavier usage imposed on modern hi-fi systems. Frequencies in excess of 20kHz are within its range.
- Subtle changes to the cabinet such as the tweeter plate, and bevelled front edges of the cabinet, help produce a dramatically more even frequency response. The B&W tradition of attention to detail manifests itself other features, such as the reinforced low-frequency driven diaphragm, the rigid die-cast chassis, and the provision for bi-wiring or bi-amplification

Description: 2-way 4th order, ported bass reflex
Drive Units:
digital monitor system with bi-wiring/biamplification facility
1 x 26 mm high-frequency with metal dome
1 x 200 mm bass/midrange with rigid die-cast chassis, reinforced propylene diaphragm and 31mm high temperature voice coil
Frequency Response: 70 Hz – 20 kHz ± 2dB on reference axis
Sensitivity: 90 dB spl(2.83V 1m)
Nominal impedance: 8 ohms
Power Handling: 25 W – 100 W into 8 ohms on unclipped programme
Height: 477mm
Width: 262mm
Depth: 220mm
Anthracite, black ash or walnut vinyl

B&W DM-330

Stand-mount/Bookshelf loudspeaker system
Product Summary
- An irresistible combination of super sensitivity, high acoustical output – at low cost.
- Bouquets from hi-fi critics for the DM110/DM220 included this from Geoffrey Horn of Gramophone “so I say to B&W how do you follow that?” with the DM330 – that’s how Mr Horn!. Technical highlights
- Refinements in the enclosure give the DM series reduced in lower mid-band coloration and a dramatic improvement in transient response.
- Advanced optimisation techniques employing modal analyses of the cabinet structure were a design feature of the enclosure in all four monitors.

Drive Units:
1 x 26 mm dome/coil construction of special polymide material
2 x 200 mm nominal piston dia and
26 mm high temperature voice coil with critically impregnated composite short fibre cone
Frequency Response: ± 3dB 48 Hz to 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 91 dB (2.83V, 1m)
Power Handling: 10W – 100W
Dimensions: Height: 857 mm, Width: 290 mm, Depth: 320 mm
Finish: American Walnut or Black Ash vinyl


Sansui's famous stereo cassette decks all feature the ultimate cassette loading system - Direct-O-Matic Front Loading. Head cleaning/demagnetizing operation is incomparably easy. Improved sound quality in recording/playback is assured. And cassette loading/unloading has never been easier. All thanks to Direct-O-Matic which eliminates the noisy, jam-prone door and cramped tape compartment. Since your cassette is mounted directly on the operation panel, it's fully visible always. You can read labels and check the amount of tape on either reel at a glance.

Improvement in the mechanism isn't the only technical triumph of the Sansui Direct-O-Matic cassette tape decks. By introducing new electronic designs and using most advanced "DC" direct-coupled amp techniques. Sansui succeeds in making cassette reprodiction more musical for real hi-fi results. We suggest you listen to a Direct-O-Matic deck before you settle for less. 

Tops both in performance and features among similary-priced competitors. Sansui's best cassette deck has IC logic circuit combined with two-motor drive to offer convenient Auto Play and Auto Repeat functions and feather touch operate buttons. Basic physical performance - wow/flutter less than 0,05% and S/N better than 67 dB - is equal or superior to that of competitive top-of-the-line decks. Your tape recording/playback pleasure is multiplied by such features as Sansui-exclusive Tape Lead-in permitting instant recording and playback. Timer facility, Dolby FM recording facility and the unique Direct-O-Matic format.

Frequency Response:  
Normal Tape 20 - 15,000 Hz;  
Chromium Tape 20 - 17,000 Hz
Wow and Flutter:  less than 0,05% (WRMS)
Signal toNoise Ratio:  Chromium Tape better than 67 dB (Dolby in)
Dimensions:  496 mm (19 5/8") W,  205 mm (8 1/4") H,  325 mm (127/8") D
Weight:  13,5 kg (29,8 lbs)

Finish:  simulated walnut grain

KEF Model 105

Model 105 is the newest additionto the wellknown Reference Series based on KEF's experience in the production of high-grade monitoring loudspeakers for sound and television broadcasting organisations. Its design is the result of a long-term development aimed primarily at avoiding the restrictions - particularly in stereo reproduction - imposed by the directional characteristics of conventional loudspeakers.
Although the project involved some advanced mathematical theory, the design objective was a very practical one, namely, that the high standard of sound quality and stereo realism to be achieved should not be confined to some preferred listening position, but should be maintained constant over a defined area large enough to accommodate a group of listeners.
Judging by the outward appearance of Model 105, the most striking feature is the arrangement of the three drive units, two of which are mounted in a separate housing of somewhat unconventional shape. But this is only one aspect of a comprehensive development, in which drive units, filter networks, enclosures and spatial acoustic were all considered as part of an overall system-engineering plan.
This most advanced loudspeaker ever made by KEF
Digital computer evaluation played a major role in the design of this loudspeaker system. By carefully matching the components drive units, enclosures and electronic dividing networks their overall combined acoustic performance is as near as possible to the theoretical ideal target response. Model 105 represents the finest achievements in modern loudspeaker technology.
All three drive units are housed in their own specially contoured enclosures, whose volumes and shapes match the frequency ranges they handle.the drive units are also staggered, so that thier effective sound path to the listeners ears are equal, to eliminate inter unit time delays. The result is extraordinary dispersion characteristics providing a broad and deep listening area within which the stereo definition and depth perspective have to be heard to be believed.
This ideal listening area in which Model 105 gives its designed response is visually identified for the listener. Furthermore the position of the area can be altered, within fixed limits by tilting and rotating the mid and high enclosures. Fuses protect the mid and high drive units, and a LED indicates the amplifier clipping.


Dimensions: 965 x 415 x 455 mm (38 x 16,3 x 17,9 in.)
Weight: 38 kg (80 lb)
Drive units:
300 mm (12") low-frequency unit with 50mm(2") high-temperature voice coil. Visco-elastic damped Bextrene diaphragm with PVC surround.
110 mm (5") middle-frequency unit with 25 mm (1") high-temperayure voice coil. Visco-elastic damped Bextrene diaphragm with PVC roll surround.
50 mm (2") high-frequency unit with 38 mm (1,5") voice coil. Mylar domed diaphragm with integral damped roll Surround.
low-frequency enclosure, 70 litres ; middle-frequency enclosures, 7 liters
Crossover frequencies: 400 Hz and 2500 Hz
Nominal impedance: 8 ohms
Programme rating: 200 watts
Characteristic sensitivity:
86 dB spl at 1 m on axis for 1 watt (anechoic conditions)
Max. continuos sinusoidal input:
35 V rms, 100 Hz to 400 Hz
28 V rms, 400 Hz to 2500 Hz
11 V rms, 2500 Hz to 20000 Hz
Max. output:
107 dB spl on programme peaks under typical listening conditions
Frequency response: 38 Hz to 22000 Hz ±2 dB at 2 m on axis
Directional Characteristics:
Horizontal, within ±2 dB of axial response up to 13000 Hz for ±20⁰;
Vertical, within ±1 dB of axial response up to 20000 Hz for ±5⁰
Peak level indicator:
Switchable (a) to indicate power levels of 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 125, 150 and 200 watts, (b) to operate at low power levels while orientation of head assembly is being adjusted

Audio Analogue - CD Paganini

The Paganini offers the latest and best technology to the audiophile seeking a top quality CD-player at an affordable price. Benefiting from the most recent developments in digital sound processing, the new Paganini CD player features true 96kHz/24bit D/A convertion via an Analog Devices AD1855 DAC.
This means that even the normal CD signal is effectively converted at high resolution. Responsible for this great improvement in D/A convertion is the high performance sample rate converter CS8420 by Crystal Semiconductors, up to now only used in professional studio equipment.
The sample rate converter turns the digital signal from the compact disc into a high resoution signal (also digital) which is then sent to the D/A converter with extremely low jitter, thanks to the high precision crystal oscillator used as reference.
The D/D convertion process implies the creation of true 24 bis samples: for this reason, the DAC receiving the high resolution signal always works at its best, providing the output analog stage with the best possible signal. The analog stage is designed, following the best Audio Analogue tradition, using only the finest quality components: polypropylene and Elna for Audio capacitors, high precision (1%), low noise resistors and high linearity opamps. The Paganini CD player is provided with a high performance digital output capable of driving any type of CD recorder or external D/A converter.
The CD transport and control board also represent the result of an exhaustive optimisation process. The extremely rigid support structure combines excellent mechanical performance with perfect shielding from the RF signal processed by the control board beneath the transport.
Finally, the sophisticated power supply uses a toroidal transformer, one secondary of which is totally dedicated to the analog circuits that are fully separate from the digital supplies. No less than nine regulators guarantee a perfect supply to every part of the Paganini CD player’s complex circuits. Naturally, such a wealth of advanced electronics features are matched by top class mechanical engineering.
The chassis is made of 3mm-thick sheet steel allowing perfect isolation from both mechanical and electromagnetic interference. The 1cm-thick black or silver satin aluminum fascia gives the Paganini CD player an elegant, yet robust and purposeful appearance. The VFD display ensures good readability in all types of lighting. And the IR remote control handset supplied with the Paganini CD player offers total control of all the machine`s functions.

17.52" (W) x 13" (D) x 3.5" (H)
22 Lbs
Analogue Output Level:
2 Vrms (Unbalanced)
Analogue Output Impedance:
< 10 Ohm (Unbalanced)
Digital Output Level:
5 Vpp @ 75Ohm (S/PDIF standard)
Frequency Response:
20 - 20.000 Hz (any source)
Jitter Rejection:
Total Harmonic Distorsion (THD):
<0.001% @ 1kHz
Noise Floor:
-140 dB
Channel Separation:
RL 100 dB / LR 100 dB
Nominal voltage supply:
115VAC / 230VAC 50/60Hz
Max. power consumption:
60 VA

DYNACO SCA-80Q (1969)

The Dynaco SCA-80Q is an all silicon solid state stereo control amplifier of exceptionally high quality. It functions as the control center for all mono or stereo signal sources, such as a record player, radio tuner, tape recorder, television sound, etc., and provides output connections from two 40 watt power amplifiers for either two or four loudspeakers, as well as a front panel jack for stereo headphones. Thoughtful planning has provided exceptional flexibility with remarkable ease of operation.
The SCA-80Q incorporates special circuitry which enables Dynaquad™ 4-dimensional playback for increased realism from a four speaker system without any additional electronics. Alternatively it may be used as a conventional two channel stereo amplifier with provision for optional connection of a second pair of speakers in a remote location.
The SCA-80Q has been designed to be used under normal conditions without special safety precautions, just as if it were a high grade tube amplifier. There are no circuit breakers, speaker fuses, or other resettable devices to impede the use of the SCA-80Q under any reasonable conditions of use or abuse. This is achieved by using novel circuits (on which patents are pending) which automatically and instantly protect the amplifier.

The components in the SCA-80Q are of the highest quality to protect against failure, both now and for many years in the future. The transistors have been selected for minimum noise and distortion in sustained use. All parts are used conservatively with close tolerances to assure proper operation, and all four etched circuit modules in the kit have been pretested under actual use conditions to ensure that every unit, after assembly, will meet the specifications normally associated with laboratory prototypes.
The specifications of the SCA-80Q speak for themselves. The distortion at low levels is comparable to that of the finest tube designs, while the high power distortion remains inaudible. Specifications do not reveal all the facets of sound quality, however. In use with varying program material, the SCA-80Q justifies its design efforts to have qualities of ease and naturalness always sought and rarely achieved in solid state designs. There is no extra brightness or stridency which is unfortunately sometimes attributed to high fidelity sound, but rather there is an impression of limitless range and effortless handling of the highest power peaks.

Rated Power Output:
30 watts continuous average power per channel into 8 ohms, 20-20,000 Hz at less than 0.5% total harmonic distortion. Distortion decreases at lower power levels.
Power at Clipping, Single Channel, 1000 Hz, less than 1% distortion:
50 watts @ 8 ohms, 36 watts @ 4 ohms, 26 watts @ 16 ohms.
Intermodulation Distortion:
Less than 0.5% at any power level up to 40 watts rms per channel into 8 ohms with any combination of test frequencies. Distortion reduces at lower power levels.
Half-Power Bandwidth:
20 watts per channel at less than 0.5% total harmonic distortion from 8 Hz to 50 KHz into 8 ohms.
Frequency Response:
Phono: ± 1 dB of RIAA curve @ 1 watt into 8 ohms.
High level: ±0.5 dB, 15 Hz to 50 KHz @ 1 watt into 8 ohms.
Hum and Noise:
Phono: More than 60 dB below 40 watts output.
High level: More than 80 dB below 40 watts output.
Input Sensitivity: 100,000 ohm load; 1.3 volts for 40 watts into 8 ohms.
Magnetic Phono: 47,000 ohms.
High Level: 100,000 ohm.
Tape Output:
From Phono inputs, 10,000 ohms minimum load.
From High Level inputs, same as source.
Headphone Output: 8 ohms or greater.
Phono Input Overload: 80 mV @ 1000 Hz.
Tone Controls:
± 12 dB @ 50 Hz;
± 12 dB @ 10 KHz.
Separation: 65 dB by IHF standards.
Semiconductor Complement: 20 transistors; 10 diodes.
Size: 13-1/2" wide by 12" deep by 4-1/4" high.
Shipping Weight: 18 lbs.
Maximum Power Consumption:
35 watts quiescent; 250 watts maximum; 50/60 Hz, 100, 120, 220, or 240 VAC.

OPERA Lirica Tebaldi

With the new Tebaldi loudspeaker, Opera`s intention is to recreate within the homeenvironment all the emotion and pleasure of listening to music: to provide a stable andfocused musical soundstage in three dimensions with correct timbre, dynamics and detail, and to do this with no sense of listening fatigue. To achieve this goal, every single technical aspect of the design was subjected to intensemusical listening tests at Opera. The new Tebaldi loudspeaker uses techniques and components which reflect the state-of-the-art inelectroacoustic design, including controlled-diffraction cabinets, drive units and crossovers andnow also the innovative CLD (Cross-Link-Dipole). Every type of distorsion has been analysed,quantified and reduced. The sonic result is tonally correct, convincing, involving and most of all,enjoyable to listen to. The Tebaldi loudspeaker is elegant and beautifully finished, and willdiscreetly enhance any room.
The aim of the Tebaldi is to recreate a precise soundstage which is stable and correct in itsproportions and in the dimensions and weight of each instrument or voice. The innovativeCLD (Cross-Link-Dipole) adds even more detail and depth to the sound stage.On the rear of the Tebaldi cabinet are mounted 4 high quality treble units, connected to form apair of rear-firing dipoles which are high-pass filtered above 2 kHz. By this means thereflected sound field is enhanced in the area close to the source (just as in Classical GreekTheatre). The entire listening experience thus gains additional depth, detail and realism.
The cabinet is made in a mix of MDF and plywood, with curved sides, veneered and finelylacquered in the best Italian tradition. The front baffle is only 16 centimeters wide yet fully 5centimeters thick, and is finished in real leather. The internal volume is divided into foursealed enclosures: two are for the sub-woofers with their associated passive radiators, one isfor the two mid-woofers and the fourth is for the external gold connections.Internally there are a number of interlocked braces which serve to increase the rigidity across the cabinet.The mid-woofers’ enclosure is completely filled with acoustic absorbing materials whichcancel standing waves and mask reflections also make the sound radiation isothermal.

Tebaldi’ s woofers are placed in an unusual position: they are all on the same side of thecabinet, facing inwards. In this way most of the energy in the low frequency region isprovided by the large cabinet itself and very little depends upon reflection from sideroom-boundaries. This gives the Tebaldi the notable advantage of easy room placement,unusual for a loudspeaker of its size.Because the mid-bass response is less dependent on loudspeaker positioning, you can selectthe cross-over frequency at 160 or 200 Hz (with 6 dB/octave slope) to match your preferencein mid-low frequency band reproduction.


A lot of speakers claim tobe audio
breakthroughs. Our new Model 14 really is. In
fact, it's so unique, that before we could create
it, we first had to invent a whole new family
components. We began with a new type of horn,
The Mantaray. It's the first "constant directivity"
horn ever created. Conventional horns, cones and
domes(including socalled omnidirectional and
reflective speakers) tend to "beam", that is,
narrow their angle of sound radiation at higher
frequencies. This effect causes the stereo image
to lose strength off the center axis and to
actually wander.

Mantaray, on the other hand, delivers a clearly-
defined sound wedge that keeps its strength
regardless of the music's changing frequencies.
You get the full spectrum of sound and the most
solid three-dimensional stereo image you've ever
heard. And since the sound doesn't diminish off
center axis, the Model 14 enlarges your listening
area, your "stereo sweet spot".
As an extra benefit, Mantaray's precise sound
focusing means your music goes in your ears -
not in your drapes, walls and ceilings.
Consequently, it's more likely than other speakers to sound
the same in your home as it does in your dealer's showroom.
Then to give you even higher highs, we devloped
the first radial phase plug, The Tangerine. In
contrast to conventional phase plugs with two
equidistant circular slots that blocksome
frequencies, the Tangerine's tapered slots permit
a free flow of high frequencies to beyond 20 KHz.
Equally important to all this is our new
Automatic Power Control System. Unlike fuse-
type devices or circuit breakers, the systems
keeps track of the power pumped into the
speaker, lets you know with a blinking light when
power exceede safe limits, and then reduces
overloads automatically, but without shutting the
speaker off. It's quite a system.
In addition, the Model 14 offers you super-
efficiency, high-power handling capacity and
exceptional dynamic range, plus a new vented
enclosure with a 12-inch bass driver for a tighter,
crisper low end. So that's how audio history is
made. And it's all yours at a price that means
the best sound value available for your home


LOW FREQUENCY; 12''Bass driver
Radial Phase plug Compression driver mounted to
MANTARAY constant directivity horn
(Measured at 4 feet, 1 watt input, using pink noise which
has been limited to a bandwidth of 500 Hz to 3 kHz)
44 dB minimum crest facto above 70 dB SPL at 4 feet
DISPERSION: 90⁰ at -6 dB Horizontal; 40⁰ at -6 dB Vertical;
tilted to 30⁰ up.10⁰ down
(Measured with pink noise limited to a bandwidth of
800 Hz to 8 kHz at a distance of 4 feet)
75 watts unprotrcted, 200 watts with Automatic Power Control
(Measured with a source of pink noise limited to the frequency
response bandwidth of the system, over an extended time period)
OPERATIONAL POWER RANGE: 10 watts to 350 watts
(Measured at a distance of 4 feet with a source of pink noise
limited to the frequency response bandwidth of the system)
FINISH: Hand-rubbed, oiled walnut
GRILLE: Acoustically-transparent black knit fabric mounted to removable frames
DIMENSIONS: 30" x 21" x 16½" (H x W x D) with grille
WEIGHT: 34,9 Kg (77 lbs) net, 43,1 Kg (95 lbs) in shipping cartoon


MkII Series high-frequency drivers.
Features include: treated textile domes with less than 0,28 gm of moving mass, unique coupling faceplate chassis for wide-dispersion and maximally flat frequency response, high temperature voice-coils and ventilated aluminium formers. Ferro-fluid damped and cooled. Barium ferrite magnets. Replaceable diaphragm.
MkII Series bass/mid-frequency drivers.
Features include: high-pressure diecast aluminum chassis, co-polymer polypropylene cones, high-hysteressis progressively-damped synthetic butyl suspensions, high-temperature multi-layer voice-coils, kapton formers. Low distortion symmetrically focused-field magnetic assemblies. Barium ferrite magnets.
Selected, close tolerance, high power components in multi-Butterworth configurations. Frequency and phase-corrected.
Oak or Black Ash vinyl veneer.
Paradigm's many advanced features are incorporated into this classically popular Raradigm design. The result is an extremely cost-effective, high-performance speaker system. The 5seMkII provides natural, uncoloured, three-dimensional music reproduction. it has high power handling, extended bass response and very low distortion. A quintessential Paradigm speaker, the 5seMkII offers unparalleled cost/performance - an astounding value.
2-driver, 2-way bass reflex.Quasi-3rd order resistive port
CROSSOVER:2nd order electro/acoustic - 2,2 kHz
One 25 mm (1") MkII/5, high-frequency driver
One 210 mm (8") MkII/5, bass/midrange driver
Low Frequency Extension; 32 Hz (DIN)
Frequency Response On Axis (0⁰); ± 2 dB from 57 Hz to 20 kHz
Frequency Response Off Axis (30⁰); ± 2 dB from 57 Hz to 15 kHz
Sensitivity-Room/Anechoic; 90 dB / 87 dB
Suitable Amplifier Power Range; 15 - 150 watts
Maximum Input Power; 100 watts
Nominal/Minimum Impedance; 8 ohms / 5 ohms
Racommended Stands; PREMIER w-40 (shown) or m-40
Internal Volume; 32 litres (1,1 cuf)
Height; 61 cm (24")
Width; 27 cm (10 ½")
Depth; 30 cm (11 ½")
Weight; 28 kg (60 lbs) per pair


The serch for further improvements over the 5seMkII in spectral linearity and dynamic power output led to the development of the 7seMkII. With a larger enclosure and higher-power drivers, the 7seMkII achieves deeper bass and greater dynamic output ability. The more sophisticated dividing network enables even better musical clarity and three-dimensional imaging.Here is remarkable low-colouration performance with wide bandwidth, low distortion and high power handling. The 7seMkII exemplifies the idea that strict adherence to the principle of simplicity and elegance of design results in a product whose performance is second to noneat a price with which none can compete.
2-driver, 2-way bass reflex. Quasi-3rd order resistive port
CROSSOVER: 3nd order electro/acoustic - 1,9 kHz
One 25 mm (1") MkII/5, high-frequency driver
One 210 mm (8") MkII/5, bass/midrange driver
Low Frequency Extension; 30 Hz (DIN)
Frequency Response On Axis (0⁰); ± 2 dB from 50 Hz to 20 kHz
Frequency Response Off Axis (30⁰); ± 2 dB from 50 Hz to 15 kHz
Sensitivity-Room/Anechoic; 89 dB / 86 dB
Suitable Amplifier Power Range; 15 - 150 watts
Maximum Input Power; 100 watts
Nominal/Minimum Impedance; 8 ohms / 4 ohms
Racommended Stands; PREMIER w-30 or m-30; w-40 (shown) or m-40
Internal Volume; 40 litres (1,4 cuf)
Height; 64 cm (25")
Width; 28 cm (10 ¾")
Depth; 34 cm (13 ¼")
Weight; 34 kg (75 lbs) per pair


The major compromise faced by 2-way speaker systems is the necessary sacrifice of high efficiency for deep bas response. The 9seMkII represents an effective solution to this common problem. Its twin woofer configuration simultaneously provides a high level of sensitivity and very deep, powerful bass. Furthermore,it allowes higher power handling and provides a dramatic reduction in distortion, especially at high sound pressure levels. Finally a
dynamic range far wider than that available from any conventional 2-way system is realized.With the superb performance achieved in the 2-way 7seMkII design, Paradigm could not accept compromises in the design of a larger model.
The 9seMkII is the result of this attitude. A High-performance 2-way design capable of out-performing systems costing several times as much.
3-driver, 2-way bass reflex. Quasi-3rd order resistive port
3nd order electro/acoustic - 2,0 kHz
One 25 mm (1") MkII/5, high-frequency driver
Two 210 mm (8") MkII/5, bass/midrange driver
Low Frequency Extension; 34 Hz (DIN)
Frequency Response On Axis (0⁰); ± 2 dB from 55 Hz - 20 kHz
Frequency Response Off Axis (30⁰); ± 2 dB from 55 Hz - 15 kHz
Sensitivity-Room/Anechoic; 93 dB / 90 dB
Suitable Amplifier Power Range; 15 - 200 watts
Maximum Input Power; 150 watts
Nominal/Minimum Impedance; 6 ohms / 4 ohms
Racommended Stands; PREMIER w-20 (shown) or m-20
Internal Volume; 56 litres (2,0 cuf)
Height; 77 cm (30")
Width; 30 cm (11 ½")
Depth; 37 cm (14 ¼")
Weight; 41 kg (90 lbs) per pair


The 11seMkII takes the performance of the 9seMkII a major step fyrther. This is accomplished by incorporating mineral-filled polypropylene bass/midrange drivers in a floor-standing system complete with its own spiked plinth.Wonderfully natural, open and detailed with deep, tight and powerful bass. Remarkably free from colouration. Excellent soundstage, image placement
and superb ability to capture the recorded acoustic space. High sensitivity and high power handling with exceptionally low distortion, especially at high sound pressure levels, give the 11sMkII excellent dynamic power capability.
The 11seMkII is an outstanding 2-way design that consistently outperforms considerably more expensive systems. Extraordinary performance and value.
3-driver, 2-way bass reflex. Quasi-3rd order resistive port
CROSSOVER: 3nd order electro/acoustic - 1,8 kHz
One 25 mm (1") MkII/5, high-frequency driver
Two 210 mm (8") MkII/5, bass/midrange driver
Low Frequency Extension; 30 Hz (DIN)
Frequency Response On Axis (0⁰); ± 2 dB from 50 Hz - 20 kHz
Frequency Response Off Axis (30⁰); ± 2 dB from 50 Hz to 15 kHz
Sensitivity-Room/Anechoic; 92 dB / 89 dB
Suitable Amplifier Power Range; 15 - 250 watts
Maximum Input Power; 160 watts
Nominal/Minimum Impedance; 6 ohms / 4 ohms
Racommended Stands; Comes with spiked isolation plinth.
Internal Volume; 74 litres (2,6 cuf)
Height; 101 cm (39 ¾")
Width; 30 cm (11 ¾")
Depth; 37 cm (14 ¼")
Weight; 55 kg (120 lbs) per pair

KEF model 105

To get the best possible stereo image you need the best possible match between the loudspeakers. At KEF we produce matched sets of high , mid and low frequency units, using our unique computerised test facilities. Moreover our total system approach to the design of the enclosures and the electronic dividing networks, means that we can deliver model 105 in pairs that are nearer to the ideal "match" than any previous loudspeaker. KEF pioneered the use of computer digital analusis in loudspeaker design and you, the listener, can now hear the results: the most lifelike musical quality and the most astonishing stero perspective.
Model 105 is the newest additionto the wellknown Reference Series based on KEF's experience in the production of high-grade monitoring loudspeakers for sound and television broadcasting organisations. Its design is the result of a long-term development aimed primarily at avoiding the restrictions - particularly in stereo reproduction - imposed by the directional characteristics of conventional loudspeakers. Although the project involved some advanced mathematical theory, the design ojective was a very practical one, namely, that the high standard of sound quality and stereo realism to be achieved should not be confined to some preferred listening position, but should be maintained constant over a defined area large enough to accommodate a group of listeners. Judging by the outward appearance of Model 105, the most striking feature is the arrangement of the three drive units, two of which are mounted in a separate housing of somewhat unconventional shape. But this is only one aspect of a comprehensive development, in which drive units, filter networks, enclosures and spatial acoustic were all considered as part of an overall system-engineering plan.

KEF have combined subjective evaluation with objective standards. The result is Model 105: a loud speaker in a class of its own, which reproduces speech and music with the highest fidelity, even at realistic concert hall levels. Listen to a symphony on Model 105's and it's like having the orchestra in your room. Three fine drive units are used in Model 105, each matching perfectly the performance requirements of the system.
The low frequency unit is a 300 mm (12") driver with a massive magnet and high temperature motor assembly which easily accommodates the high power for which Model 105 is designed.
The 110 mm (5") mid range unit has an aluminium voice coil former, and a visco-elastic damped Bextrene diaphragm diaphragm supported by a special PVC edge suspension.
The high frequency unit is a 52 mm (2") radiator with a 38 mm (11/2") hemispherical Mylar plastic diaphragm and a damped roll surround. Each drive unit in the Model 105 has its own individual enclosure.

Model 105 Specifications

Dividing Network: 4th order Linkwitz-Riley band pass -6 dB at crossover points
Dividing Frequencies: 400 & 2,500 Hz
Nominal Impedance: 8 ohms
Programme Rating: 200 watts
Sensitivity: 86 dB spl for 1 watt (1m on axis-anechoic)
Maximum Continuous Sinusoidal Input:
35 Vrms 100 to 400 Hz
28 Vrms 400 to 2,500 Hz
11 Vrms 2,500 to 20,000 Hz
Maximum Output: 107 dB spl on programme peaks under typical listening conditions
Frequency Response: 30 to 25,000 Hz ±2 dB 38 Hz to 22 kHz at 2 m on measuring axis
Directional Characteristics:
Within ±1 dB of axial response up to 20,000 Hz (for ±5° vertical)
Within ±2 dB of axial response up to 13,000 Hz (for ±20° horizontal)
Amplifier Requirements: 40 watts minimum into 8 ohms
Fuses: Fitted to mid-frequency and high-frequency sections
Peak Level Indicator: Switchable to indicate power levels of 40, 50, 60, 100, 125, 150 and 200 watts
Dimensions: 965 x 415 x 455 mm, (38 x 16.3 x 17.9 in)
Weight Net: 36 kg (80lb)
Finish: Walnut

Accuphase T-101 (1974 - 1981)

Monophonic Performance
Usable sensitivity; 11dBf (2,0 µV)
50 dB Quietung Sensitivity; 18dBf (4,5 µV)
SIGNAL TO NOISE at 65 dBf (1mV): 75 dB
DISTORTION ( with Selectivity switch set to NORMAL 65 dBf (1mV) Input):
100 Hz - 0,1%
1,000 Hz - 0,1%
10,000 Hz - 0,2%
will not exceed 0,2% (antenna input 65 dBf (1 mV), 100% mod. 14 kHz and 15 kHz = 1:1)
+0, -1 dB 20 Hz to 15 kHz
SELECTIVITY (with SELECTIVITY switch set to):
Alternate Channel: 55 dB
Adjacent Channel: 6 dB
Alternate Channel: 100 dB
Adjacent Channel: 20 dB
OUTPUT: 2,0 Volts

Stereo Performance
Usable sensitivity; 31dBf (20 µV)
50 dB Quietung Sensitivity; 38dBf (45 µV)
SIGNAL TO NOISE at 65 dBf (1mV): 70 dB
100 Hz - 0,2%
1,000 Hz - 0,2%
10,000 Hz - 0,5%
will not exceed 0,2% (antenna input 65 dBf (1mV), Standart Stereo mod. 10 kHz)
+0, -1dB 20 Hz to 15,000 Hz
100 Hz - 35 dB
1,000 Hz - 45 dB
10,000 Hz - 30 dB

TUNING CAPACITOR: Frequency Linear 4-gang
Audio Output FIXED: 200 ohms
Audio Output CONTROLLED: 2,5K ohms
FM ANTENNA INPUTS: 300 ohm balanced, 75 ohm unbalanced
Signal Stregth Meter
Center Tuning Meter
Multipath Meter
TUNING RANGE: 88 Mhz to 108 MHz
Voltage selector for 100V, 117V, 220V, 240V 50/60 Hz operation
Consumption: 26 watts
2 FET's, 7 IC's, 25Transistors, 24 Diodes
455 mm (18 inches) wide, 152 mm (6 inches) high, 355 mm (14 inches) deep
11,1 kg (24,4 lbs) net, 15,4 kg (33,8 lbs) in shipping carton

Products Accuphase guarantee specifications stated.
All specifications are measured in accordance with the new IHF measurement method.

Accuphase T-100 (1973 - 1982)

A superior tuner can significantly enrich audio life today for there is an abundance of broadcast reproduction matter which provides great opportunities to expand one's tape library through careful air checking. The ideal tuner should come close to connecting the broadcast studio to the amplifier and eliminate the medium of radio waves. Thus, it should be able to cut the noise, interference and distortion that is picked up with the radio waves during its transmission, to a level which cannot be detected by the ear.This is where the main emphasis was placed indesigning the Accuphase T-100 Tuner. In addition, special attention was paid to performance stability against external variables such as incoming signals levels, changes of temperature, humidity and time, as well as on smooth-working tuning and switching mechanism. In short, the most advanced electronic and mechanical techniques were called upon to develop this outstanding tuner.Two basic functions are required of tuners: the ability to catch and select radio waves as in the case of a receiver's front end, and to amplify and demodulate them, without causing distortion as is so important in audio equipment. The difficulty is that the characteristics of the two requirements are so mutually opposed, that of te one tends to suffer when the other is improved. It is a fact that to solve this problem requires the highest technology and considerable expense.In developing the Accuphase T-100 tuner, we have met this challenge by developing latest radio frequency techniques and by adding required new circitry unsparingly. The result is something we are proud of introducting, and we are sure that you will come to have a special attachment for this tuner too.

FM signals picked up by the antenna tuned and amplified by the RF amplifier, then mixed with the local oscillator signal in the converter circuit to from a 10,7 MHz intermediate frequency (IF) signal. This ciruitry constitutes what is known as the front-end, which plays a vital role in determining a tuner's value. This section must be able to amplify weak signals well, handle strong signals without distorting, and have the capability to remove completely all radio frequency noise and interference.The T-100 meets these requirements well by utilizing a linear frequency, 5-gang tuning capacitor, double tuned RF amplifier stages, complete intercircuit shielding, local oscillator buffer circuit, and dual gate FET's in all RF and converter circuits, etc. This is attested by performance ratings for spurious signal rejection of better than 100dB. Image rejection is also better than 90 dB. The T-100 also has a 245mm wide, slide-rule type dial which has linear frequency indications at 250 kHz intervals that is combined with precision tunning mechanism to ensuree smooth, accurate tuning.
The 10,7 MHz IF signal from the front-end enters the IF amplifier circuit where it is amplified and fed to teh detector while adjacent frequency signals are rejected. This rejection(IF sensitivity) is normally the function of transformers or mechanical filters in conventional tuners. The T-100 however employs a newly developed 15 stage LinearPhase Filter combined with an integrated circuit to obtain better rejectionand, at the same time,less distortion. Thus, selectivity was made compatible with sound quality, as attested to by the performance ratings for distortion of less than 0,1% and effective selectivity of more than 70 dB, which significantly surpass the limitations of past tuners.
In order to demodulate the linear phase amplified IF signal without distortion into an audio signal, the former isfed to a special detector circuit which employs a 1,200 kHz wide discriminator which has three times the width of those normally used. This has contributrd to significant improvement in stereo characteristics.
We have avoided all use of coil and capacitor tuned circuits in the stereo dempdulator which separates the audio signal into left and right channel stereo signals. Instead we have used the most advanced phase Locked Loop Stereo Demodulator which automatically locks the phase of the subcarrier generator with that of the incoming pilot signal. This accounts for theexcellent ratings for stereo separation of better than 45 dB (1kHz), and distortion of less than 0,2% on stereo. It also ensures long life and dependable performance.
In addition to teh Signal and Tuning meters, an independent Multipath meter is provided inside the front sub-panel. Multipath signals, like TV ghost signals, cause distortion which harm FM stereo sound quality. To avoid them the FM antenna should be oriented for minimum deflection of the Multipath meter.LOW DISTORTION AM TUNERGood quality broadcasts are also available on AM,although frequency response is narrower, AM has usually been treated as an accessory by most high fidelity manufacturers, and has received very little new design considerations. However as a result of a new type detector circuit, optimum bandwidth reserch and use of expensive MOS and J type FET in the front-end and IF stages, we can offer low distortion noise-free AM msic performance with the T-100.
The front sub-panel contains a 2-step muting switch, a stereo noise filter control, independent AM an FM level controls, and dial light control. The Multipath meter lamp light automatically when the sub-panel cover is opened.
PERFORMANCE GUARANTY:Products of Accuphase guarantee specifications stated;
FM Monophonic Performance:
2,0 µV, least usable sensitivity; 2,0 µV for 40 dB of quieting; 4,5 µV for 50 dB of quieting
75 dB at 200 µV input
ULTIMATE THD (at 50 µV input, 100% modulation):
100 Hz : will not exceed 0,1%
1,000 Hz : will not exceed 0,1%
10,000 Hz : will not exceed 0,1%
will not exceed 0,2% (antenna input 1 mV, 100% Mod. 70 Hz: 7 kHz =4 :1)
+0, -1 dB 20 Hz to 15,000 Hz
SELECTIVITY: alternate channel: 70 Db
IMAGE REJECTION: 90 dB (at 100 MHz)
AM REJECTION: 60 dB at 1 mV input
OUTPUT: 2,0 Volts
FM Stereo Performance:
20 µV for 40 dB of quieting45 µV for 50 dB quieting
70 dB at 2mV input
ULTIMATE THD (at 500 µV input, 100% modulation):
100 Hz: will not exceed 0,2%
1,000 Hz: will not exceed 0,2%
10,000 Hz: will not exceed 0,5%
+0, -1 Db 20 hZ TO 15,000 Hz
35 dB at 100 Hz
45 dB at 1,000 Hz
30 dB at 10,000 Hz
2-step switching at 5 µV and 20 µV
19kHz, 38 kHz REJECTION: 70 db
AM Performance:
15 µV Distance
150 µV Local
S/N: 50 dB (antenna input level 1 mV, 30% Mod. at 1 kHz)
THD: will not exceed 0,5% ( antenna input level 1 mV, 30% Mod. at 1 kHz)
WHISTLE FILTER: -30 dB at 10kHz
OUTPUT: 0,6 Volts (30% Mod.)
FM: Frequency Linear 5-gang
AM: 3-gang
Audio Output FIXED: 200 ohms
Audio Output CONTROLLED: 2,5 K ohms
300 ohms balanced;
75 ohms unbalanced
Signal strength Meter
Center Tuning Meter
Multipath meter
Voltage selector for 100V, 117V, 220V, 240V 50/60 Hz operation
Consumption: 26 Watts
7 FET's, 45 Transistors, 9 IC's, 43 Diodes
445 mm (171/2 inches) wide, 152 mm (6 inches) high, 355 mm (14 inches) deep
14kg (30,8 lbs) net, 18,3 kg (40,6 lbs) in shipping carton

Accuphase E - 202 (1974-1981)

The Accuphase E-202 is a top class Integrated Amplifier with separate component grade features and characteristics. It delivers 100 Watts per channel RMS into 8 ohms with less than 0,1% distortion from 20 to 20,000 Hz. This high power capability is backed up by heavy duty power transistors in a parallel push-pull drive output stage.
The deep reverberating sound quality and expression of music detail that is heard through an extra powerful amplifier can be far more dynamic and inspiring than sound from an ordinary amplifier. However, powerful amplifiers that may sound good at high volume levels often fail to sound as well at low listening levels.
The three position Speaker Damping Control allows one to gain the maximum performance from your speakers. The preamplifier section is loaded with features such as, Disc Low Enhancement, Subsonic Filter, Switchable Disc Impedance Selector and provision for connection of up to three tape decks with independent dubbing. The E-202 combines the best of separate components into a single unit with performance that rivals many.

POWER OUTPUT (from 20Hz to 20,000Hz with no more than 0,1% total harmonic distortion):
140 watts RMS at 4Ω; 100 watts RMS, at 8Ω; 50 watts RMS, at 16Ω
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION (from 20Hz to 20,000Hz at any power output from 1/44 watt to rated power):
4 ohms - 0,15% max.; 8 ohms - 0,15% max.; 16 ohms - 0,15% max.
INTERMODULATION DISTORTION (High Level Input to Main Output):
will not exceed 0,1% at rated power output for any combination of frequencies between 20Hz -20,000Hz
FREQUENCY RESPONSE (at rated power output from 20Hz - 20,000Hz):
Main Amp. Input : +0, -0,2dB;
High Level Input; +0, -0,5dB;
Low level Input: +0, -1,0dB
DAMPING FACTOR (at 8 ohms load, 20Hz - 20,000Hz):
with "Speaker Damping" switch set to:
"NORMAL" - 50;
"MEDIUM"- 5;
"SOFT" - 1
Disc 1: 2,5mV - 5mV; 30K ohms, 47K ohms, 100K ohms
Disc 2: 2,5mV; 47K ohms
High level Input: 160mV; 100K ohms
Main Amp.Input: 1,0V; 100K ohms
Disc 1: 300mV RMS at disc level control maximum for 1kHz
Disc 1: 600mV RMS at disc level control minimum for 1kHz
Disc 2: 300mV RMS (distortion 0,05% at 1kHz)
Preamp. Output: 1,0V, 600 ohms (at rated input level)
Tape Rec. 1, 2: 160mV, 200 ohms (at rated input level)
HEADPHONE OUTPUT: 4 to 32 ohms

Main Amp. Input to Output: 29dB
High level Input to Preamp. Output: 16dB (at Volume control maximum)
Low Level Input to Tape Rec.: 36dB (Disc 1 level control provides 6dB variation)
Main Amp. Input: 94dB below rated output
High Level Input: 80dB below rated output
Low Level Input: 74dB below rated output
(when adjusted for 10mV input at 1kHz)
BASS / TREBLE CONTROLS: 10 step Rotary Switch for both channels with ON-OFF switch. Tone is varied in 2 dB steps
BASS turnover frequency: 400Hz, ± 10dB at 100Hz
TREBLE turnover frequency: 2,5kHz, ± 10dB at 10,000Hz
VOLUME CONTROL: Less than 1dB tracking error
COMPENSATOR: ON position boosts low frequencies for low level listening, +9dB boost at 50Hz when the volume knob is adjusted to -30dB position
DISC LOW ENHANCEMENT (for disc input):
+1dB at 100Hz to RIAA standard characteristic with "Low Enhance" switch set to ON position
Disc Subsonic Filter: 25Hz cutoff 6dB/oct
Low Filter: 30Hz cutoff 18dB/oct
High Filter: 5kHz cutoff 12dB/oct
Meter is calibrated to read 0dB when amplifier produces 100 watts into 8 ohms load. METER RANGE switch is provided to increase meter sensitivity by 10dB or 20dB
Voltage selector for 100V, 117V, 220V, 240V 50/60Hz operation
Consumption: 70 watts at zero signal output; 375 watts at rated power output into 8Ω load
53 Transistors, 4 FET's, 44 Diodes, 2 Thermistors
455mm (18") wide, 152mm (6") high, 355mm (14") deep
19,5 kg (42,9 lbs); 23,8 kg (52,3 lbs) in shipping carton


Semi-professional Transcription Turntable
Without doubt the best transcription turntable on the market
Servo controlled electronic belt-drive system with DC motor - a THORENS design
Load-correcting automatic pitch control (APC)
ISOTRACK TP16 Mk III tonearm with very low effective mass
Low resonance tonearm tube utilising "split wave technology"
Friction-free velocity-sensing electronic shut-off
Separate motor for tonearm lift operation
Three speeds 33, 45 and 78 rpm
Precision craftsmanship to meet the highest professional standards

The TD 126 Mk III by Thorens  is "the" transcription turntable for discriminating music lovers and professional users. It is the product of 95 years experience in the construction of musical instruments allied to the mastering of the most advanced technilogy in the fields of fine mechanics and electronics. The main objectives of Thorens engineers remain unchanged robustness, reliability and life-time maintenance of the original performance specification.
In their constant battle against rumble, Thorens designed a servo controlled electronic belt-drive to associate with unique floating suspension system.

Every turntable must be damped by a suspension system to prevent the sensitive pick-up from environmental vibration and from acoustic feedback. If the springs are placed between motor and turntable platter, they then fulfill the additional requirement of decoupling motor vibrations almost completely from the turntable and the pick-up system.

The turntable platter and the tonearm are both mounted on a secondary chassis carrying the motor. Thanks to their exclusive design Thorens Transcription turntables claim rumble figures equalled by no other drive system. 

For optimum in tracking ability it is not sufficient that a tone arm has low bearing friction. It is much more important that is has a low effective mass, because high mass prevents the stylus from following the imperfections (waro or ripple) of the record as it should do. To overcome high effective mass one can increase the stylus force, but this results in excessive record wear. Thorens has solved the effective mass problem by removing any unnecessary weight from the tone arm.
The head shell is reduced to a shielding device, and the detachable connector is placed close to the pivots where it has negligible influence on the effective mass. In addition, Thorens Isotrack is a straight arm and not S-shaped. The necessary offset angle is independent of the arm shape.
Typical arms have effective masses of around 15 grammes.
The Thorens Isotrack is half this figure, allowing it to track at the lowest possible stylus pressures.

A special surface treatment of the tone arm tube - "split wave technology" - absorbs all undesirable resonances of tone arm.

Friction-free velocity-sensing electronic shut-off
As the lead-out grooves of records show a higher pitch - i.e. the grooves are further apart from one another - the tonearm motional speed increases towards the center of the platter. An electronic circuit picjs up the signal produced by the change in the tonearm velocity and commands the motor to stop and the tonearm to raise. The precision associated with Thorens turntables is further emphasised here, since the activation of the auto stop process is not position  sensitive, but fully electronic and friction-free.
The Thorens automatic stop system also enables the operator to cue with studio precision at any point on a disc, even at the very centre.

Another circuit prevents the activation of the auto stop process when the tonearm is moved by hand over the disc surface. A separate motor is using for tonearm lift operation.
Drive System:  1 step belt-drive
Motor:  DC Motor with 72 pole tachogenerator
Speed:   33, 45 and 78 rpm electronic speed selection
Motor Speed Control:  Electronic regulation with load correcting automatic pitch control
Pitch Control:  ±6% illuminated stroboscope
Turntable Platter:   3,2 kg zinc alloy dynamically balanced
Platter Diameter:  30 cm (12")
Wow & Flutter:  Less than 0,035% according to DIN 45507
Rumble Unweighted:  -52 dB according to DIN 45539
Rumble Weighted:  -72 dB according to DIN 45539
Rumble Measured with the THORENS Rumble Measuring Device:
Rumble Unweighted :  -65 dB according to DIN 45539
Rumble Weighted :  -78 dB according to DIN 45539

Tonearm TP 16 Mk III
Cartridge Wand TP 63
Tonearm Lenght:  230 mm (9")
Effective Mass:  7,5 g
Stylus Overhang:  14,4 mm
Offset Angle:  22⁰
Lateral Tracking Error:  Less than  0,18⁰/cm radius
Skating Compensation:  Magnetic force without friction
Stylus Pressure Appliance:  by spring
Bearing Friction:  Less than  0,15 mN (15 mp) in bith planes
Cartridge Fitting:  Standard ½" centres
Capacitance of Cable:  190 pF ± 10%

Auto Stop:  Electronic velocity sensor
Mains Voltage:  117/220 V, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  11 Watt
(W x D):  505 x 395 mm
Height with cover closed :  170 mm
Height with cover open :  460 mm
Depth with cover open :  395 mm

Weight:  15 kg, (33 lbs)