What is stereo?




There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.




H.H. Scott '59





DUAL 1225 (1974)


DUAL 1225
Function and regulation:
Operation in single and multi play mode
Balancing of the tonearm
Setting of the stylus pressure
Anti-skating mechanism
Cue control shock-free
Pitch control and calibration of Pitch control

DUAL CS 18 valnut model
Dimensions: 364 x 146 x 312 mm
Weight: 5,7 kg


Technical data
Power supply: AC, 50 /60 Hz, changeable by changing motor pulley
Power supply voltage: 110-130 V and 220-240 V, changeable
Drive: 4-pole Dual asynchronus motor with verticable adjustable drive pulley
Power consumption: ‹ 10 watts
Current drain: 64 mA approx. at 220 V, 50 Hz; 115 mA, at 110 V, 60 Hz
Platter: 1,45 kg, 270 mm diameter
Turntable speeds: 33 and 45 rpm
Automatic tonearm set-down coupled to speed selection
Pitch control variation: adjustment range of approx. 1 semitone (6%) at both turntable speeds
Speed accuracy deviation: ‹ ±0,15 %
Rumble: unweighted › 37 dB, weighted › 56 dB
Tonearm: Torsion-resistent tubular aluminium tonearm in self-adjusting pivot bearing
Cartridge Holder: removable, accepting any piezo-electric cartridges with ½"mounting and a weight from 2 to 10 grams (including mounting hardware)
Stylus pressure: from 0 (zero) to 5 grams infinitely variable, operable from 1.0 gram stylus pressure up.
Cartridge: see separate data sheet
Dimensions: 329 x 274 mm (+ 20 mm tonearm overhang)
Weight: approx. 4,0 kg



DUAL DMS 200 - Cartridge

DUAL DMS 200

Technical data

Stylus: DN201, 0,6 ±0,1 mil spherical diamond stylus for micro-groove and stereo records

Recommended stylus pressure: 2,5 g (2 -3 g)

Frequency range: 20 c.p.s. to 20 k c.p.s.

Output: ≥ 0,7 mV/1cm/sec perchannel at 1 k c.p.s.

Output difference between channels: Max. 2 dB at 1 k c.p.s.

Isolation between channels: Min. 20 dB at 1 k c.p.s.

Compliance: Horizontal 18 x 10-⁶ cm/dyn; Vertical 18 x 10-⁶ cm/dyn

Intermodulation distortion (FIM): At 2,5 g stylus pressure, 8 cm/sec velocity, ≤ 0,7%

Net weight: 7 p

End resistance: 47 kOhm

Impedance: 5,5 kOhm at 1 k c.p.s.

Ohmic resistance: 1,2 kOhm

Inductance: 850 mH

AKAI GXC-760D (1976)

Un registratore con caratteristiche professionali che stabilisce nuovi parametri nella registrazione in cassetta

Questo modell è frutto della grande esperienza e della sorprendente ingegniosità dei progettisti e deitecnici della Akai che hanno saputoriassumere nel GXC-760D a caricamento verticale e di dimensioni molto compatte, le più raffinate e avanzate tecnologie degli anni '80. 3 motori, 2 per il trascinamento del nastro e il nuovo C.P.G. (polo centrale a frequenze generate) equipaggiato di 40 ingranaggi laterali generatori di impulsi che forniscono la rivelazione al compratore elettronico, per l'accuratezza e la stabilità di rotazione dei 2 capstan a circuito chiuso. 3 testine di cui 2 GX (Monocristallo di ferrite) accoppiate e incapsulate in vetro, in un unico monoblocco, per l'eliminazione della deviazione di fase con possibilità di doppio monitoring professionale. Comandi con circuiti logici a relais che consentono il passaggio da una funzione all'altra con una rapidità e dolcezza di funzionamento senza precedenti.

Qualità timbriche e dinamiche eccezionali con valori di fluttuazione paragonabili a quelli di un registratore professionale a bobine. Esclusivo circuito per la lettura diretta sugli strumenti dei segnali di picco. Dispositivi di calibrazione del livello Dolby in rapporto all'equalizzazione del nastro utilizzato. Possibilità di missaggio del suono tra gli ingressi microfonici e di linea. Possibilità di registrazione temporizzata con comando a distanza (opzionale). Filtro Multiplex. Memoria per arresto automatico del nastro. Dispositivo per la regolazione automatica della tensione del nastro quando si inserisce una nuova casetta. 82 transistors, 8 FET, 8 CI, 125 diodi. La risposta in frequenza si estende entro ±3 dB da 30 a 19KHz con Dolby inserito e la fluttuazione è inferiore allo 0,09%. Styling di grande class e pregio.


Specifications:

Manufacturer: Akai, Japan

Tape counter: 3 digits

Drive type: 1 x servo capstan motor, 2 x DC motors

Head assembly: 1 x GX-2-head system for recording and playback, 1 x delete head

Noise reduction circuit: Dolby, calibrated

Tape equalization: "ADR" system

Inputs: Mic: 0.3 mV 4.7 kohms; Line: 100 mV 70 kohms

Outputs: Line: 775 mV; Headphones: 8 ohms

Level meters display: 2 x switchable VU meters as peak value indicator

Frequency response: 30-19000 Hz (FeCr); 30-16000 Hz (CrO)

Wow and flutter: ± 0.15%

Dimensions: 440 x 142 x 306 mm

Weight: 10 kg

SANSUI BA-5000 (1975)

STEREO/MONO POWER AMPLIFIER

POWER HEADROOM

Separating what you do want in fine musical reproduction from what you don't want is a job that calls for power-lots of it. Distortion, noise and unwanted tonal coloration must go. That's why every circuit in the BA-5000 is designed with more than enough power headroom to eliminate everything but the music each step of the way along the circuit chain. Abundant power reserve also enables transients, dynamics and range to be preserved without strain and without the slightest hint of coloration oraudible noise. The meaning of power becomes clear asyou enjoy the musical resolution, transparency and definition of the BA-5000. Here are the facts about its construction and design.

INPUT

The differential amplifier at the input stage of the BA-5000 uses a dual-transistor formed on one semiconductor wafer. Since it offers a high input/low output impedancecharacteristic, the circuit operates with unwavering stability at all times, regardless of the input level control settings.

DRIVER

Next,the pre-driver circuit is a 2-stage differential amplifier using a dual-transistor stage for balanced zero voltage, followed by an active-loaded driver stage for high-gain Class-A amplification. This allows the application of optimum and stable negative feedback to drastically reduce all types of distortion.

OUTPUT

Three Darlington-connected amplifier stages for high current gain are found in the final output stage, terminated by eight large power transistors, for each channel. The power transistors are arranged in an elaborate "four-in-parallel" OCL complementary symmetry push-pull configuration. This means that linearity is maintained throughout to reduce distortionand further extend power headroom. Results: per channels power output of 300 watts, min. RMS, both channels driven into 8 ohms over a 20 to 20,000 Hz bandwith with no more than 0,1% total harmonic distortion. It is here that the proof of the BA-5000's overall integrity is heard - a very wide dymanic range, and a realistic bass reproduction with virtually no distortion at rated output.

POWER STRAPPING

A high-efficiency transformer couples the final stage of the output power circuit to the speaker terminals. This allows the BA-5000 to deliver its rated output at loads of 8 ohms, 4 ohms or 2 ohms in 2-channel operation; in mono the total of 600 watts, min. RMS over a 20 to 20,000 Hz bandwidth, with no more than 0,1% total harmonic distortion, is available across loads of 16 ohms, available for professional studio work or for PA use at live rock concerts, etc.

BANDPASS FILTER

The transformer also functions as a bandpass filter to cut subsonic signals, such as are generated by warper or offcentered records. Speaker cones are thus protected against exessive excursion and resulting breakdowns.

PROTECTION INDICATOR

If temperatures or electrical conditions warrant the triple protection circuit operates and the front panel Power/Protector indicator changes fromgreen to red; the LED lamp will continue to glow red until safe conditions are restored. It also illuminates in red for moments after power-on, then turns green to indicate that power issafely available to speaker terminals.

PROTECTION CIRCUITS

The BA-5000 has three thoroughly dependable protection circuits:

An ASO detection circuit monitors teh current flow in power transistors and limits the current entering the final stage instantly if the latter semiconductors are forced to work beyond thier Area of Safe Operation (ASO);

A self-restoring temperature detection circuit with a thermistor cuts off the incoming signals from the driver stage if heat rises as the result of overloads or other abnormalities;

An overload detection circuit with quick-acting fuses is also included.

METERS

Accurate metering, a touchy point in amplifiers of this size and quality is assured by the use of two very responsive meters calibrated on the logarithmically compresses scale in steps from 0,01 to 300 watts (8 ohms); scales in decibeles are also provided ( -50 to +5 dB). Pulsive inputs are shown accurately and more quickly than in even the best VUs for correct output power indication.

POWER TRANSFORMER

Less magnetic leakage flux. A highly concentrated magnetic field. Less heat generation. Smaller size and improved power regulation. These are some of teh advantages of the special power transformae which add up to improved transient response, allowing the BA-5000 to respond to pulsive musical signals instantaneously regardless of level. Sansui has used toroidal coil windings on a seamless ring and a twin positive/negative dual power supply format with separate windings for left and right channels to prevent potentially harmful channelinteraction. This transformer also has special provisions for eliminating the audible "thump" of power-on switching.

CAPACITORS

The four oversized electrolityc capacitors (each 22,000µF for a total of 88,000µF) regulate power evenly whether input levels are high or low.

SUPPLY

Low-level circuits such as the input and driver stages are fedbalanced negative/positive current fron an independent dual power supply.

CONTROLS,CONNECTIONS AND MOUNTING

Individual left and right input controls on the front panel, and one stereo set of speaker terminals on the rear panel are provided. The solid chassis uses thick 2 mm steel plates; it is sized and designed forprofessional rack mounting. The chassis cover is an attractive vintage claret color, with jet-black alumite face plate and aluminum trim. The top panel carries the block diagram of the amplifier inside for the benefit of engineering-oriented enthusiasts.Voltage outputs of 70V MONO and 25V STEREO areindicated on the rear panel for convenience in professional applications.

SPECIFICATIONS

POWER OUTPUT:

STEREO; Min.RMS both channels driven from 20 -20000 Hz,with no more than 0,1% THD

300 watts per channel into 2, 4, 8 ohms

24,5 volts into 2 ohms

34,6 volts into 4 ohms

49,0 volts into 8 ohms

MONO; Min. RMS from 20 - 20000 Hz,with no more than 0,1% THD

600 watts into 4, 8, 16 ohms

49,0 volts into 4 ohms

69,3 volts into 8 ohms

98,0 volts into 16 ohms

LOAD IMPEDANCE:

STEREO; 2, 4, 8 ohms

MONO; 4, 8, 16 ohms

OUTPUT VOLTAGE: 25 volts stereo; 70 volts mono

POWER BANDWIDTH: 20 - 20000 Hz at or below rated min. RMS power output and THD

TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION: less than 0,1% at or below rated min. RMS power output

INTERMODULATION DISTORTION: (70 Hz; 7000 Hz = 4:1 SMPTE method) less than 0,1%

FREQUENCY RESPONSE: 15 - 30000 Hz, +0dB, -2dB (at 1 watt)

DAMPING FACTOR: approx. 10 at 8 ohm load

HUM AND NOISE (IHF): better than 100 dB

INPUT SENSITIVITY AND IMPEDANCE: 700 mV, 50 kohms (1000 Hz for rated output)

AC OUTLET: unswitched total 150 watts

SEMICONDUCTORS: 59 Transistors, 34 Diodes, 5 Zener Diodes, 2 ICs, 1 LED

POWER REQUIREMENTS:

Power Voltage; 100, 120, 220, 240 V, 50/60 Hz

Power Consumption; 490 watts (rated) 1350 watts (max.)

DIMENSIONS: 482 x 222 x 466 mm (19 x 8¾ x 18 inch)

WEIGHT: 49 kg (108,0 lbs) Net.

MAXELL UD XL I, UD XL II

Maxell UD XL I e UD XL II: per ogni audiofilo che si rispetti non può esserci alternativa.


Il vostro registratore quasi certamente possiede un selettore per cassette del tipo normale e del tipo cromo. la Maxell vi propone due casette radicalmente nuove che offrono la possibilita di ottenere il meglio dal vostro apparecchio secondo quale posizione del selettore vogliate usare; si chiamano UD XL I e UD XL II.

La UD XL I è stata concepita esclusivamente per l'uso con il selettore del nastro sulla posizione "normal" (120µs di equalizzazione). Confrontata con cassette convenzionali, possiesde un livello massimo di uscita superiore di 8 dB sull'intera gamma delle frequenze. Diventa cosi possibile eseguire registrazioni assolutamente prive di distorsioni anche con alti livelli d'entrata ed in registrazioni dal vivo.

La Maxell UD XL II invece è stata concepita per l'uso con selettore di nastro sulla posizione CrO₂ (Crome) (70µs di equalizzazione). Ciò permette di sfruttare la capacità di ridurre il rumore di fondo propria di questo circuito che generalmente riduce i rumori dell alte frequenze fino a 4 - 5 dB, permettendovi registrazioni pulite e trasparenti senza il minimo "soffio" di sottofondo. Ma, fatto ancora più importante, questa cassetta possiede un raporto segnale/disturbo superiore di 5 dB rispetto alle migliori cassette al cromo ed al ferri-cromo, senza presentare i difetti legati al nastro al cromo quali l'usura delle testine e la risposta molto limitata sulle medie frequenze.

Ma non è tutto: la stupefacente fedeltà di queste nuove Maxell è assicurata anche dalla meticolosa lavorazione della cassetta che in ogni sua parte presenta tolleranze comprese entro 1/5 di quelle ammesse dagli standart philips, oltre ad avere incorporato un sistema di guide del nastro ruotante su supporti in acciaio inossidabile per una completa e totale assenza di wow e flutter. Infine, anche queste nuove cassette adottano l'ormai famoso ed esclusivo "leader tape" Maxell a 4 funzioni:

pulisci testine non abrasivo;

5 secondi esatti per "cueing";

frecce che indicano la direzione di rotazione del nastro;

contrassegni A/B per riconoscere il lato che sta per essere adoperato.

BASF Chromdioxid



Ogni registratore di classe dispone di commutatore per le cassette al biossidio di cromo. Quindi, a ogni registratore con CrO₂ cassette BASF CrO₂ - per ottenere il massimo livello di dinamica a tutte le frequenze, qualità d'ascolto Hi-Fi, bassissimo rumore di fondo nella registrazione.

Tre vantaggi in uno, Cassette BASF CrO₂

Miglioramento della dinamica: cassette BASF al biossido di cromo, massima dinamica a tutte le frequenze, è un nastro speciale che porta le cassette a livello Hi-Fi.

Meccanica Speciale SM: Finalmente scorrimento del nastro senza problemi, Ridottissimo rumore di fondo, niente più bloccaggi o miagolii.

In versione C-BOX: novità esclusiva BASF, una leggera pressione sul tasto roso e la cassetta è pronta per l'uso. C-BOX; l'idea BASF che aspettavate per mettere ordine fra vostre cassette.



AUDIO RESEARCH MCP-2 (1982)

AUDIO RESEARCH MCP-2 Pre-pramplifier is a stereo preamplifier designed to proide the additional gain required (with low noise) to alloe the use of low output moving coil phono pickup cartridges with existing stereo preamplifiers. It is intended for use in the highest quality systems.

Analog Modules™ (type 3) are used to proide the voltage amplification with low noise. No efort has been made to design a unit with theoretical minium noise. Since "trade-offs" are involved in design for linearity vs. noise, primary emphasis has been placed on providing a unit with the intrinsic linearity to offer state-of-the-art sound reproduction, while keeping noise to an acceptable and reasonable level.

Since a pre-preamplifier must amplify very small signals up to the level of the normal preamplifier's low level inputs, any instabilities or power supply weaknesses will result in significant degrading of system performance. Because of this, the MCP-2 contains a very sophisticated two-stage electronic regulation system to assure stability and power line isolation. This feature becomes especially important when using wide-band high power amplifiers at live music sound pressure levels.

SPECIFICATION

Frequency response: ± 25dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz -3dB points, 5 Hz and 100 kHz Harmonic Distortion: less than 0.005% at rated output, IHF load.

Intermodulation Distortion: less than 0.005% at rated output, IHF load

Noise & Hum: less than 50nV equivalent noise with 10 ohm input (RIAA weighted)

Gain: switch selectable, 10, 16, 22, 28, 34 dB.

Imput impedance: switch selectable, 10, 30, 100 ohms and special (can be any value from 3 ohms to 1 kohms ).

Output impedance: 50 Ohms

Maximum inputs: 50 mV RMS

Rated outputs: 25V RMS

Power requirements: 105-120/210-240 VAC, 50/60 Hz

Weight: 5.5kg (with cartoon 7.3kg)

THIEL Model 02 (1976)

THIEL Audio approaches speaker system design with the intention of providing the discriminating listener with musically accurate loudspeakers that incorporate a broad range of important performance characteristics. Our emphasis on total performance requires attention not only to musical qualities, but also to such characteristics as high efficiency, rellabillity and cost-effectiveness. The Thiel model 02 loudspeaker is a two way ported design that provides smooth, natural reproduction and good bass response in an efficient bookshelf system.

PERFORMANCE FEATURES

Smoothness and balance are the most critical factors for natural sounding reproduction of music. The Model 02 has a smooth response and is accurately balanced, resulting in very detailed and natural sound. Accurate bass response is an important musical characteristic that is often not achieved in speakers in this price class. The bass response of the Model 02 is clean and tight, extending flat to 45 Hz without boom or distortion.

Efficiency,although not directly audible, is very important for realistic reproduction of the dynamic range of music. Dynamic range capability without amplifier overload is facilitated by the high efficiency of the Model 02. The combination of natural reproduction, good bass response and high efficiency distinguishes the Model 02 as an exceptional value in its price class.

TECHNIQUES

Relatively small diameter drivers are employed for excellent transient response, very broad dispersion and uniform power response. The woofer is a 6½ inch unit for accurate reproduction of midrange musical detail. A high crossover is thus permitted, which is above the ear's most critical range. The bass frequencies are produced by a ported system with a fourth order Butterworth tuning to 45 Hz. The extended bass response is the result of the small woofer with a long throw voice coil in conjunction with the port loading. The tweeter is a one inch cloth dome exhibiting excellent transient and dispersion characteristic extending to 20,000 Hz.

The cabinet is hand-crafted with geniune hardwood venners with a natural, lacquered finish. This finish is designed to show off the inherent beauty of the specially selected cabined woods; Black Walnut, Brazilian Rosewood or White Oak.

Quality is carefully maintained throughout manufacture. Each driver and crossover is individually tested before final installation. After completion the system is carefully inspected and again tested to asure that it is performing to specifications. The confidence that we have in its quality and dependability is reflected in our 5 year warranty.

SPECIFICATIONS

Frequency response: flat ± 2dB 45 - 20,000 Hz

Sensitivity: 90 dB/watt-meter

Crossover frequency: 60 Hz accoustical, 2000 Hz

Recommended power: 10 - 100 watts

Enclosure type: tuned port

Size: 19 x 11 9,5 inches

Weight: 22 pounds

Cabinet options: Walnut, Rosewood, Oak

Grille: black doubleknit polyester

Warranty: 5 year limited

PARADIGM se-series MkIII


In recent years Paradigm has become recognized as the market leader for performance/value. In fact, Paradigm speakers are consistently rated n.1 for price/value in surveys conducted by trade publication Inside Track. Simply put, Paradigm delivers better sound for less.
This tradition continues with the MkIII Performance Series. These elegant floor standing speakers offer outstanding musicalperformance along with a small "footprint" so they fit gracefully into any room setting.


PARADIGM BUILT HIGH-FREQUENCY DRIVERS
TTD™ treated-textile domes and suspensions have extremely low mass (less than 0,28 gm) and very high internal damping for uniform and instantaneous response.
Low profile convex domes with critical faceplate coupling promotes a wide dispersion, maximally flat response resulting in a lerge "listening window".
High-temperature voice-coils, ventilated aluminium formers and ferro-fluid cooling/damping ensure superb dynamic response, low distortion and long service life.
Focused-field magnet assemblies ensure low distortion and greater power handling.


PARADIGM BUILT BASS/MID FREQUENCY AND MIDRANGE DRIVERS
High-pressure diecast aluminum chassis' control mechanical vibration, ringing and flexing.
Co-polymer polypropylene cones combine a very high stiffness-to-mass ratio with excellent intarnal damping for smooth colourration-free response, extended bass performance and greater freedom from unwanted resonances and distortions. In addition, polypropylene is unaffected by age, temperature or humidity. Unlike less expensive paper cones, PARADIGM'S sound quality will not deteriorate with time or changes in climate.
High-hysteresis progressively-damped synthetic butyl suspensions eliminate "edge-hole" distortion. This occurs when the cone's suspension begins to resonate in an uncontrolled manner. This major form of distortion has been isolated and eliminated.
High-temperature multi-layer voice-coils and Apical™ formers ensure better musical accuracy and reliability. Extended voice-coils provide excellent linear response regerdless of cone excursion.
Focused-field magnetic assemblies ensure low distortion and excellent linearity even under high output conditions.



QUIET™ ENCLOSURES
Enclosure material resonances are controlled through the use of 19 mm acoustically inert high density hardboard.
Strategically located radial braces limit unwanted panel resonances, increases enclosure stiffness and prevents "ballooning" effects.
High velocity, low noise ports allow maximum bass efficiency with minimum turbulance distortion.
Better materials and engineering results in a "quieter" enclosure - one that does not produce its own sound but instead simply allows for the recreation of the original performance.
SEAMLESS DIVIDING NETWORKS
Hand selected, close tolerance, high power components are used in multi-element quasi-Butterworth configurations.
Frequency and fase-corrected for superb coherent sound.
Bi-wireable/bi-ampable.

Designing better sounding speakers demands a tremendous commitment to research. This research, however,must be rooted in a firm understanding of how we discren what we hear. Extensive listener preference tests conducted by the National Research Council (NRC) gives PARADIGM designers an in-depth understanding of how sound is perceived and clearly establishes what design parameters are most critical to what we hear. To meet or exceed these design parameters in the '90's, however, demands a very large investment in R&D.
Paradigm's R&D facility is very comprehensive. It includes one of the largest and finest anechoic chambers in the speaker industry wordwide, extensive state-of-the-art computer measuring equipment and multiple listening rooms of varying acoustic properties.
With thes facilities Paradigm designers are able to continually push the performance envelope of teh critical design parameters. The result? Better sounding speakers. Today Paradigm makes some of the finest sounding speakers available , regardless of price.
BUt when price is consideredParadigm speakers are nothing short of sensational. And yhis is clearly evident with the MkIII Performance Series. Hera is exceptional performance and simply unprecedented value.

PARADIGM Mini-MkIII


The Mini MkIII is paradigm's take on the classic two-way mini-speaker , with a 6½ inch woofer and a 1 inch tweter. Both the translucent polypropylene woofer and the ferrofluid damped, textile-dome tweeter are built from scratch right in Paradigm's factory, along with nearly every other part that goes into the line. Few speaker companies can make this boast, because few speaker companies have the brains to actually get into the speaker driver busisness themselves - most of the speakers you see on the market, even high-end models, use off-the-shelf drivers from various OEM suppliers. Paradigm's ability to build thier own drivers gives them tremendous advantages when it comes to quality control and custom design.
The Mini MkIII is a ported design, with a bass-reinforcing port located on the speaker's rear panel. The port-loaded woofer, plus the Mini's deceptively deep 13 by 8 by 11-inch cabinet, allow for deeper and louder bass response than most of the two-way mini speakers in this price class. placed on the recommended 22-inch Premier stands, the Minis look way too small for the amount of room-filling sound they can deliver.



Specifications
DESIGN:
2-driver, 2-way bass reflex, quasi-3rd order resistive port.
CROSSOVER:
2an order electro/acoustic at 1,8 kHz
HIGH FREQUENCY DRIVER:
25 mm (1") TTD™ treated textile dome with aluminum former, ferro-fluid cooled and damped.
BASS/ MIDRANGE DRIVER:
165 mm (6½") with diecast chassis, polypropylene cone and Apical™ former.
PERFORMANCE
LOW FREQUENCY EXTENSION:
40 Hz (DIN)
FREQUENCY RESPONSE;
> On Axis (0⁰): ±2 dB from 70 Hz - 20 kHz
> Off Axis (30⁰): ±2 dB from 70 Hz - 15 kHz
SENSITIVITY-ROOM/ANECHOIC:
89 dB/86 dB
SUITABLE AMPLIFIER POWER RANGE:
15 - 100 watts
MAX INPUT POWER:
80 watts
NOMINAL/MIN IMPEDANCE:
8 ohms / 4 ohms
PHYSICAL:
INTERNAL VOLUME: 11,1 litres (0,39 cuf)
HEIGHT: 33 cm (13 in)
WIDTH: 21 cm (8 in)
DEPTH: 28 cm (11 in)
WEIGHT: 14 kg (31 lbs)
FINISHES: Black Oak, Oak

PARADIGM 3se MkIII


3se MkIII
The 3se MkIII is a full range systems, careful matching of enclosures and drive units results in systems with excellent low frequency extencion. High frequency response reaches to beyond 20 kHz, the limits of audibility. This ensures that all of the musical information contained in the source recording will be reproduced without the need for equalization or tone control adjustment.
The revolutionary advances of digital technology (CD's, DAT's, DCC's ) mean that today's speakers are presented with unique challange. The greatly enhanced dynamic range and low distortion available with digital source recordings demand a speaker that can keep pace. PARADIGM's commitment to speaker design with low distortion, linear response and wide dynamic range meets the challenges of digital technology. The result is reproduction that truly captures the essence, dimension and dynamics of the original musical performance.

Specifications
DESIGN:
2-driver, 2-way bass reflex, quasi-3rd order resistive port.
CROSSOVER:
3rd order electro/acoustic at 1,8 kHz
HIGH FREQUENCY DRIVER:
25 mm (1") TTD™ treated textile dome with aluminum former, ferro-fluid cooled and damped.
BASS/ MIDRANGE DRIVER:
210 mm (8") with diecast chassis, polypropylene cone and Apical™ former.
PERFORMANCE
LOW FREQUENCY EXTENSION:
36 Hz (DIN)
FREQUENCY RESPONSE;
> On Axis (0⁰): ±2 dB from 50 Hz - 20 kHz
> Off Axis (30⁰): ±2 dB from 50 Hz - 15 kHz
SENSITIVITY-ROOM/ANECHOIC:
90 dB/87 dB
SUITABLE AMPLIFIER POWER RANGE:
15 - 150 watts
MAX INPUT POWER:
100 watts
NOMINAL/MIN IMPEDANCE:
8 ohms / 4 ohms
PHYSICAL:
INTERNAL VOLUME: 25 litres (0,87cuf)
HEIGHT: 52 cm (20¼ in)
WIDTH: 25 cm (9½ in)
DEPTH: 31 cm (12 in)
WEIGHT: 22 kg (48 lbs)
FINISHES: Black Oak, Oak

PARADIGM 5se MkIII


5se MkIII
PARADIGM'S many advanced features are incorporated into this extremely attractive design. The result is a superb high-performance speaker system.
The 5se MkIII provides a wonderfully natural and dimensional presentation of music. It has high power handling, extended bass response and very low distortion.
A quintessential PARADIGM speaker, the 5se MkIII offers unparalleled performance vs. cost - an outstanding value.
Specifications
DESIGN:
2-driver, 2-way bass reflex, quasi-3rd order resistive port.
CROSSOVER:
2an order electro/acoustic at 2,2 kHz
HIGH FREQUENCY DRIVER:
25 mm (1") TTD™ treated textile dome with aluminum former, ferro-fluid cooled and damped.
BASS/ MIDRANGE DRIVER:
210 mm (8") with diecast chassis, polypropylene cone and Apical™ former.
PERFORMANCE
LOW FREQUENCY EXTENSION:
32 Hz (DIN)
FREQUENCY RESPONSE;
> On Axis (0⁰): ±2 dB from 57 Hz - 20 kHz
> Off Axis (30⁰): ±2 dB from 57 Hz - 15 kHz
SENSITIVITY-ROOM/ANECHOIC:
90 dB/87 dB
SUITABLE AMPLIFIER POWER RANGE:
15 - 150 watts
MAX INPUT POWER:
100 watts
NOMINAL/MIN IMPEDANCE:
8 ohms / 4 ohms
PHYSICAL:
INTERNAL VOLUME: 40 litres (1,4 cuf)
HEIGHT: 85 cm (33¼ in)
WIDTH: 24 cm (9½ in)
DEPTH: 30 cm (11½ in)
WEIGHT: 32 kg (70 lbs)
FINISHES:
Black Oak, Oak, Black Gloss, Rosewood Gloss

PARADIGM 7se MkIII


7se MkIII
This elegant design occupies very little floor space and yet offers stunning performance - very low colouration with wide bandwidth, low distortion and high power handling.
Advanced drive units and a sophisticated dividing network ensures excellent clarity and imaging. Twin bass/mid drivers provide high dynamic power ability.
The 7se MkIII exemplifies the idea that strict adherence to the principles of simplicity and finesse in design will result in a product whose performance is second to none at a price with which none can compete.
Specifications
DESIGN:
3-driver, 2-way bass reflex, quasi-3rd order resistive port.
CROSSOVER:
2an order electro/acoustic at 1,8 kHz
HIGH FREQUENCY DRIVER:
25 mm (1") TTD™ treated textile dome with aluminum former, ferro-fluid cooled and damped.
BASS/ MIDRANGE DRIVER:
2 x 165 mm (6½") with diecast chassis, polypropylene cone and Apical™ former.
PERFORMANCE
LOW FREQUENCY EXTENSION:
34 Hz (DIN)
FREQUENCY RESPONSE;
> On Axis (0⁰): ±2 dB from 50 Hz - 20 kHz
> Off Axis (30⁰): ±2 dB from 50 Hz - 15 kHz
SENSITIVITY-ROOM/ANECHOIC:
92 dB/89 dB
SUITABLE AMPLIFIER POWER RANGE:
15 - 175 watts
MAX INPUT POWER:
120 watts
NOMINAL/MIN IMPEDANCE:
6 ohms / 4 ohms
PHYSICAL:
INTERNAL VOLUME: 46 litres (1,6 cuf)
HEIGHT: 88 cm (34⅝ in)
WIDTH: 21 cm (8¼ in)
DEPTH: 38 cm (14¾ in)
WEIGHT: 39 kg (86 lbs)
FINISHES:
Black Oak, Oak, Black Gloss, Rosewood Gloss

PARADIGM 9se MkIII


9se MkIII
The common problem faced by 2-way speaker systems is the compromise of sacrificing high efficiency for deep bass. The 9se MkIII solves this problem. its twin 8" bass/midrange driver configuration simultaneously provides high sensitivity, deep power full bass, high power handling and a dramatic reduction in distortion, especially at high sound pressure levels.
PARADIGM could not accept the "high-efficiency fordeep bass" sacrifice in the design of a larger 2-way model. The 9se MkIII is the culmination of this attitude, ... a high-performance 2-way design capable of out-performing systems costing several times as much.
Specifications
DESIGN:
3-driver, 2-way bass reflex, quasi-3rd order resistive port.
CROSSOVER:
3rd order electro/acoustic at 2,0 kHz
HIGH FREQUENCY DRIVER:
25 mm (1") TTD™ treated textile dome with aluminum former, ferro-fluid cooled and damped.
BASS/ MIDRANGE DRIVER:
2 x 210 mm (8") with diecast chassis, polypropylene cone and Apical™ formers.
PERFORMANCE
LOW FREQUENCY EXTENSION:
32 Hz (DIN)
FREQUENCY RESPONSE;
> On Axis (0⁰): ±2 dB from 45 Hz - 20 kHz
> Off Axis (30⁰): ±2 dB from 45 Hz - 15 kHz
SENSITIVITY-ROOM/ANECHOIC:
93 dB/90 dB
SUITABLE AMPLIFIER POWER RANGE:
15 - 200 watts
MAX INPUT POWER:
150 watts
NOMINAL/MIN IMPEDANCE:
6 ohms / 4 ohms
PHYSICAL:
INTERNAL VOLUME: 66 litres (2,3 cuf)
HEIGHT: 94 cm (37 in)
WIDTH: 27 cm (10½ in)
DEPTH: 38 cm (14¾ in)
WEIGHT: 46 kg (100 lbs)
FINISHES:
Black Oak, Oak, Black Gloss, Rosewood Gloss

PARADIGM 11 se MkIII


11se MkIII
This extraordinary 3-way design consistently outperforms many very expensive systems.
Bass drivers have 1½" voice coils for increased power handling. these are mated to a superb 6½" midrange drive unit and 1" treated textile dome. High sensitivity and power handling plus very low distortion especially at high sound pressure levels - gives the 11se MkIII excellent dynamic power ability. Natural open detailed with deep tight powerful bass.
Excellent imaging with superb ability to capture the priginal acoustic space.
The 11se MkIII provides exceptional performance and incredible value.
Specifications
DESIGN:
4-driver, 3-way bass reflex, quasi-3rd order resistive port.
CROSSOVER:
2an order electro/acoustic at 550 Hz, 3rd order electro/acoustic at 1,9 kHz
HIGH FREQUENCY DRIVER:
25 mm (1") TTD™ treated textile dome with aluminum former, ferro-fluid cooled and damped.
MIDRANGE DRIVER:
165 mm (6½) with diecast chassis, polypropylene cone and Apical™ former.
BASS/ MIDRANGE DRIVER:
2 x 210 mm (8") with diecast chassis, polypropylene cone and Apical™ formers.
PERFORMANCE
LOW FREQUENCY EXTENSION:
28 Hz (DIN)
FREQUENCY RESPONSE;
> On Axis (0⁰): ±2 dB from 45 Hz - 20 kHz
> Off Axis (30⁰): ±2 dB from 45 Hz - 15 kHz
SENSITIVITY-ROOM/ANECHOIC:
92 dB/89 dB
SUITABLE AMPLIFIER POWER RANGE:
15 - 250 watts
MAX INPUT POWER:
180 watts
NOMINAL/MIN IMPEDANCE:
6 ohms / 4 ohms
PHYSICAL:
INTERNAL VOLUME: 90 litres (3,1 cuf)
HEIGHT: 111 cm (43½ in)
WIDTH: 29 cm (11¼ in)
DEPTH: 40 cm (15½ in)
WEIGHT: 62 kg (136 lbs)
FINISHES:
Black Oak, Oak, Black Gloss, Rosewood Gloss

B&W DM-580


DM580
Floor-standing loudspeaker system

Product Summary
The DM580 is a prodigious floor-standing three-way system in the finest B&W tradition, covering the entire frequency range and offering critical enjoyment over the whole spectrum of musical experience.
The rear vented enclosure has been precisely tuned to intergrate with the drive units and simplified crossover. Matrix technology has influenced the critical bracing of the enclosure which is further strengthened by separate mounting the tweeter, bass/midrange and bass units.

Technical highlights
B&W's Tweeter technology ensures that the sound remains focused and time sensitive and that the stereo image is presented with unparalleled three dimensional accuracy.
The cabinets feature a specially designed high density front baffle which achieves almost Matrix-like stability in strengthening overall enclosure construction. The bevel edges of the front moulding reduce diffraction and improve dispersion. The crossover components use heavy gauge wire throughout and new drivers guarantee not only high reliability but ensure that top specifications are met.


Drive Units
1 x 26mm high-frequency with aluminium dome, 26mm coil on aluminium former, wound with polymide resin and heat cured
2 x 200mm bass/midrange with composite short fibre cone, 26mm coil on high temperature former, wound with polymide resin and heat cured
Frequency Response:
50Hz – 20kHz ± 2.5dB on reference axis
Sensitivity:
91dB spl(2.83V 1m)
Nominal Impedance:
8 ohms
Power Handling:
10W – 150W into 8 ohms on unclipped programme
Dimensions:
Height: 886mm, Width: 236mm, Depth: 407mm
Finish:
Black ash or walnut vinyl

AKAI AM 2450 (1977)



POWER AMPLIFIER SECTION
RATED OUTPUT POWER (2 CHANNELS DRIVEN):
45 watts per channel,minimum RMS,a t 8 ohms from 20 to 20,000 Hz with no more than 0,1% (THD)
POWER BANDWIDTH: 6 Hz to 60 kHz/8 ohms (Total Harmonic Distortion: 0.1%)
SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO (IHF) ;
PHONO: Better than 75 dB
AUX: Better than 95 dB
RESIDUAL NOISE: Less than 0.5 mV at 8 ohms
CHANNEL SEPARATION (lHF) PHONO: Better than 55 dB at 1,000 Hz
DAMPING FACTOR: More than 30 (1 kHz, 8 ohms)
OUTPUT SPEAKERS: A, B (4 to 16 ohms)/A + B (8 to 16 ohms)
OUTPUT HEADPHONE: 4 to 1.6 ohms

PREAMPLIFIER SECTION
INPUT SENSITIVITY/IMPEDANCE;
PHONO: 3 mV/47 kohms
AUX: 150 mV/l00 kohms
TUNER: 150 mV/100 kohms
TAPE MONITOR: PIN: 150 mV/100 khoms, DIN: 150 mV/l00 kohms
OUTPUT LEVEL/IMPEDANCE (TAPE REC): PIN: 150 mV/l kohms, DIN: 30 mVi 80 kohms
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
PHONO (RIAA EQUALIZATION): 30 Hz to 15 kHz +1 dB, -1 dB
TUNER, AUX, TAPE MONITOR: 10 Hz to 60 kHz +1 dB, -1 dB
TONE CONTROL;
BASS: ±9 dB at 100 Hz
TREBLE: ±9 dB at 10 kHz
LOUDNESSC ONTROL: +10 dB at 100 Hz, +5 dB at l0 kHz (Volume control set at -30 dB position)

MISCELLANEOUS
SEMICONDUCTORS: Transistors - 27. Diodes - 17, IC's - 4
POWER REQUIREMENTS: 110/220/240V , 50/60 Hz
DIMENSIONS: 440 (W) x 144 (H) x 345 (D) mm, (17,3 x 5,7 x 13,6 inches)
WEIGHT: 9.9 kg, (21.8 lbs)

NAKAMICHI 1000 Tri Tracer

MkI 1973-1977, MkII 1977-1980
"TRI-TRACER NAKAMICHI 1000"
The world's first 3-head cassette deck with quality and performance comparable to the professional 15 ips. reel-to-reel deck. NAKAMICHI RESEARCH INC. has finally overcome the fundamental handicaps of cassette tapes - such as 1 - 7/8 ips. tape speed and 0,6 mm track width restricting the available electro-magnetic energy to less than 10% of that of the reel-to-reel tape - with the high precision tape transport mechanism, sophisticated circuitry, specially designed heads and many other advanced features which assure the easiest and foolproof operation with the highest level performance.
"TRI-TRACER"
Is a pet name created by NAKAMICHI RESEARCH INC. for a series of professional quality 3-head cassette decks starting from Nakamichi 1000 as a top of the line. "Tri-Tracer" is a 3-head system which traces the fundamental performance of the tape deck in terms of frequency response, distortions, signal-to-noise ratio and wow and flutter with the highest possible standards.



TAPE DRIVE MECHANISM
Closed loop double capsta, staggered large flywheels maintain perfect tape tension across the 3-heads with ultra-low wow and flutter. Also phonic-wheel type DC servomotor maintains correct speed at all times against voltage and frequency fluctuation.
IC LOGIC ELECTRONIC CONTROL
All tape motion controls are solenoid operated, with light finger touch buttons. IC control logic circuit produces any sequence control of complicated timing which assures the user copmplete freedom from click noise. Other automatic controls such as automatic shut-off, memory rewind, automatic rewind and record lock are also provided. The position in motion will be indicated by illuminated lamps above each control button.


ALIGNMENT BEACON
A unique and simple way in which a pair of pilot lamps flicker alternately when a correct head azimuth alignment is obtained. It eliminates the poor high-end response and phase shift created by the change in tape running condition due to dimensional difference among various brands cassette tape enclosures.

3-HEAD CONFIGURATION
Completely separate record, playback and erese heads configuration permits instantaneous off-the-tape monitoring and ensures the best possible frequency response, up to 20 kHz constantly. The record head is ofhi-Mu ferrite with a 5 micron gap designed to obtain deep and intensive recording. The playback head is of special hi-Mu hard permalloy cores and thin titanium film spacer which enables the gap to be as narrow as 0,7 micron.


DOUBLE NOISE REDUCTION SYSTEM
The Nakamichi 1000 is also unique in having two independent noise reduction systems, the one is the Dolby NR system and the other is the Dynamic Noise Limiter (DNL) system. By using two suppressed by more than 13 dB. The Dolby NR system has independent circuitry in recording and playback and instant monitoring of Dolbyized recording is available. The DNL system works inthe playback mode and effectively suppress the noise in the frequency range of around 10 kHz.

PITCH CONTROL
Any speed within the range of ±6% can be selected. This control is for correction of tape speed previously recorded off speed, and for playback at higher and lower pitch in music lessons and other wide applications.

PEAK LIMITER
Although the record amplifier in the Nakamichi 1000 has very wide dynamic range so that the distortion may hardly occur in normal sound recording.However in case oflive recording the distortion may occur due to excessively wide dynamic range of sounds to be recorded, and the built-in PEAK LIMITER minimizes such distortion.

DP PEAK LEVEL METER
The Nakamichi 1000 is equipped with level meters indicating the peak level in recording so that they effectively eliminate the risk of over-recording.

3-POINT SOUND PICKUP
other than the normal two microphone inputs the third input for the blend microphone is provided andeach input level can be adjusted independently sothat the professional quality mixing is available. The blend microphone is especially useful for recording of solo vocal or solo instrument.