What is stereo?
There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.
H.H. Scott '59
Function & regulation:
Operation in single & multi play mode
Balancing of the tonearm
Setting of the stylus pressure
Cue control shock-free
Pitch control and calibration of Pitch control
The CS 1237's tonearm is mounted ina four-point gyroscopic gimbal-widely acknowledged as the finest suspension system available. The tonearm is centred, balanced and pivoted exactly where the vertical and horizontal axes intersect.
From pivot to tonearm head, the shape is a straight line, the shortest distance between those two important points. Curved tonearms may look sexier, but at the cost of extra mass, less rigidity and lateral imbalance - none of which is consistent with good engineering practice.
Tracking force is applied by a flat-wound spring coiled around the vertical pivot, and this force is maintained equally on each groov wall whether or not the turntable is level. The tonearms's perfect balance is maintained throughout play.
By contrast, tonearms which apply tracking force by shifting the counterweight forward are actually unbalanced during play and prone to mistracking. For example, on warped records the stylus tends to dig in on the uphill side of the warp and to lose contact on the way down.
Vertica-bearing friction in the CS 1237 tonearm is astonishingly low - less than 8 milligrams. It can track as low as 0,25 gram - which means it will allow any cartridge to operate at its own optimum tracking force.
There's still more. The counterweight is carefully damped to attenuate tonearm resonances. Anti-skating is separately calibrated for all stylus types. Cueing is damped in both directions to prevent bounce. And because the CS 1237 can play up to six records in sequence, the stylus angle can be set for optimum vertical tracking in either single-play or multiple-play.
To find any other tonearm that seriously matches the CS 1237's, you have two choice.
You can consider one of the more exotic separates. But you'll find they cost as much as the entire CS 1237 (price: less than $180, complete with base and cover)
Or you might compare it with one ofthe higher-priced Dual turntables. You'll find a few additional refinements, but no difference in design integrity or manufacturing quality. Which is why no other turntable quite matches a Dual , any Dual
Straight-line tubular shape of all Dual tonearms provides maximum rigidity with low mass. Offset angle of tonearm head achieves lowest angle of tonearm head achieves lowest possible horizontal tracking error. Curved lonearms with the same effective lengh require more mass
Power supply: AC, 50 or 60 cycle, changeable by changing motor pulley
Power supply voltage: 110-125 V or 220-240 V, switchable
Drive: Dual 8-pole synchronus motor with precision flat beltfor flywheel drive
Power consumption: ‹ 10 watts
Current drain: 64 mA approx. at 220 V, 50 cycle; 115 mA, at 110 V, 60 cycle
Platter: non-magnetic, detachable ; 1,00 kg, 270 mm diameter
Turntable speeds: 33⅓ and 45 rpm
Automatic tonearm set-down coupled to speed adjustment
Pitch control variation: adjustment range of approx. 1 semitone (6%) at both turntable speeds
Total Wow and Flutter: ‹ ±0,10 % (according to DIN 45 507)
Rumble: unweighted › 40 dB, weighted › 60 dB
Tonearm: Torsion-resistent tubular aluminium tonearm in four point gimbal
Tonearm Bearing Friction: (related to stylus tip)
Vertical < 0,08mN (0,008 g)
Horizontal < 0,16 mN (0,016 g)
Cartridge Holder: removable, accepting any piezo-electric cartridges with ½"mounting and a weight from4,5 to 10 grams (including mounting hardware)
Stylus pressure: from 0 - 50 mN (0 -5 g) infinitely variable, operable from 5 mN (0.5 gram) stylus pressure up.
Adjustable Overhang: 5 mm
Cartridge: see separate data sheet
Chassis: 13 x 10¾ inches;
Base: 16½ x 14½ x 3½ inches;
Height with cover: 7¼ inches
Weight: approx. 4,6 kg
Sensitivity IHF: 2,0 uV
Quieting S/N = 50 dB: 4 uV
Limiting: -3 dB: 1,4 uV
Selectivity: 60 dB
Capture Ratio: 1,0 dB
Image Rejection: 60 dB
THD Mono: 0,2%
S/N Mono: 65 dB
AM Suppression: 50 dB
Frequency Response: 10 Hz to 15 kHz ( -3 +1 dB)
Output Level/Impedance (1kHz, 100% Mod.):
Fixed: 500 mV/10 KΩ
Variable: 1V max/ 5 KΩ
Quieting (S/N=50 dB): 50 uV
Subcarrier Rejection (19 kHz, 38 kHz): 45 dB
100 Hz - 35 dB
1 kHz - 40 dB
10 kHz - 35 dB
Usable Sensitivity (S/N=20 dB):
IHF, Bar Antenna: 300 uV/m
Selectivity: 35 dB
Image Rejection: 40 dB
S/N: 45 dB
Output Level /Impedance (400 Hz, 30% Mod.):
Fixed: 150 mV/10 KΩ
Variable: 300 mV/ 5 KΩ
Dimension (W x H x D): 400 x 132 x 290 mm
Weight: 6,6 kg
Power Output, Continuous RMS (both channels driven at 1 kHz):
Into 8 ohms: 45 W
Into 4 ohms: 55 W
THD at 1 kHz Rated Output: 0,1%
IM Distortion at Rated Output: 0,2%
Power Band Width at Half Power, 0,2% THD: 10 Hz to 45 kHz
Damping Factor at 1 kHz, 8 ohms: 35
S/N Ratio, CCIR Weighted;
Aux/Tuner, Volume min: 95 dB
Aux/Tuner, Volume max: 90 dB
Phono, Volume max: 70 dB
Mic., Volume max: 70 dB
Phono: 2,5 mV
Mic: 2,5 mV
Aux/Tuner: 160 mV
Phono Input Overload: 140 mV
Crosstalk: 55 dB at 1 kHz, 45 dB at 10 kHz
Bass 100 Hz, Treble 10 kHz: ±10dB
Loudness Boost: 8 dB at 100 Hz, 4 dB at 10 kHz
Subsonic Filter At 20 Hz: -12 dB
Power Requirement: 220/240 V AC, 50/60 Hz, 300 W max
Dimensions (W x H x D): 400 x 132 x 290 mm
Weight: 8,85 kg
Balanced Stereo PowerAmplifier
Completely balanced powerful output stage consisting of two sets of 7 parallel push-pull transistor pairs
Outstanding low-impedance drive capability
Separate power supplies for left and right channels
Ever since the advent of pulse coding method to record electric signals, the world of reproduced music is about to underego significant changes, because the digital recording technology has brought about substantial improvement in the reality of the reproduced music. Moreover, minute and subtle reverbration components, which are essential to reproduce the atmosphere of the original sounds, can now be recorded with utmost accuracy.
Needless to say, accurate transmission of signals is indispensable in the reproduced sound fields; otherwise, we cannot even appreciate the reproduced music and in the worst case, we may not be able to perceive what we listen to as music but nothing more than collection of noises. Equally important for reproducing music, however is an amplifier that can correctly amplify even reverbration components to reproduced music, as if the music were being played by an orchestra right in front of you. Without such an amplifier, the atmosphere of beautiful and elegant music cannot be reproduced. It is therefore vital for a power amplifier to be able to yield power of high amplitude and, at the same time, to amplify minute signals superimposed on the electric signals it amplifies, with high fidelity. However the power an amplifier can produce and its fidelity are, in many case, in a mutual contradictory relation, and the higher power an amplifier can produce, the lower its fidelity in reproducing minute signals and reverberation components. The P-800 which was developed with Accuphase's technology that has already produced a superb monophonic amplifier, M-1000 is an exceptional power amplifier in this respect as it can yield a power of as high as 600 watts (into 4 ohm loads), but reproduce even reverberation components with high fidelity, which is not possible with most of the amplifiers on the market today. Its uses two power units in bridged configuration, forming a totally balanced amplifier, meticulous attention has been paid to every detail, and original Accuphase technology is used throughout, with the aim to improve quality especially at low signal levels.
The impedance of loudspeakers on the market varies considerably, ranging from about 2 ohms to 16 ohms. With a direct-coupled amplifier, driving such a wide impedance range with equal aplomb is almost impossible. An output stage designed for optimum performance at 2 ohms will deliver less power into 8 to 16 ohms. Conversely, the performance of an amplifier optimiozed for about 4 to 8 ohms suffers at 2 ohms and it will not be capable of driving 1-ohms loads.
The P-800 incorporates a special design to deal with a wide range of load impedances. The applied voltage of its output devices can be switched to a lower value, to provide the high current capability required by low-impedance loads. This results in a truly amazing guaranteed rating of 600 watts into 1 ohm and 400 watts into 2 ohms, with undiminshed sound quality. To achieve such stunning performance the output stage of each power unit employs two sets of seven parallel push-pull pairs of wide-band transistors with a maximum power dissipation of 130 watts each. This amounts to 14 pairs or 28 transistors per unit, totaling a maximum powe dissipation of 3,6 kilowatts. These truly astounding figures testify to the no-holds-barred Design approach of the P-800.
To let you monitor its performance, the P-800 incorporates two symmetrically arranged analog level meters.
The beautiful and simple elegance of this amplifier's external appearance belles its awesome performance. But when turned on, it speaks unmistakably through music.
Totally balanced construction with two separate power units for ultimate sound quality
Accurate reproduction of sound field with two independent power supplies
Ultra-powerful output stages consisting of two sets of seven parallel push-pull transistor pairs each
Excellent low-impedance drive capability - 600 watts into 1 ohm, 400 watts into 2 ohms
Cascode differential push-pull input stage tuned for perfection
"Cascode push-pull + MOSFET cascode pus-pull" drive stage for minimum distortion at low levels and superior high-range stability
Large analog power meters reading -60 dB to +3 dB
40-kilohm balanced input and 20-kilohm unbalanced photo jack
All Accuphase product specifications are quaranteed as stated
Continuous Average Power Output (20 -20,000 Hz):
Normal load impedance operation (THD 0,01%)
600 W/ch into 4 ohms
400 W/ch into 8 ohms
200 W/ch into 16 ohms
Low load impedance operation (THD 0,05%)
600 W/ch into 1 ohm
400 W/ch into 2 ohms
200 W/ch into 4 ohms
Total Harmonic Distortion:
0,05% with 1 to 4 ohmload
0,01% with 4 to 16 ohm load
Intermodulation Distortion: 0,003%
20 to 200,000 Hz ±0 dB (for rated output, level control at max.)
0,5 to 150,000 Hz +0, -3,0 dB (for 1 watt output,level control at max.)
0,5 to 80,000 Hz +0, -3,0 dB (for 1 watt output, level control at -6 dB)
Gain: 28,0 dB
Output Level Impedance:
4 to 16 ohms in Normal load impedance operation
1 to 4 ohms in Low load impedance operation
Damping Factor (EIA, 50Hz): 200
Normal load impedance operation
2,25 V for rated output into 8 ohms
0,12 V for 1 watt output into 8 ohms
Low load impedance operation:
1,13 V for rated output into 2 ohms
0,06 V for 1 watt output into 2 ohms
Unbalanced: 20 kilohms
Balanced: 40 kilohms
Signal-to Noise Ratio (A-weighted):
125 dB with input shorted at rated output
95 dB with 1 kilohm input termination at 1 W output
Power level Meter:
Logarithmic compression scale, peak reading -60 dB to +3 dB and direct watt-reading scale
158 transistors, 20 FET's, 15 ICs, 158 diodes
100/117/220/240 V, 50/60 Hz AC
110 watts + 110 watts idle
610 W + 610 W in accordance with IEC-65
740 watts + 740 watts at rated power output into 8 ohms
Dimensions (W x H x D): 481 x 239 x 489 mm (18¹⁵/₁₆ x 9¹³/₃₂ x 19¼ inches)
Weight: 47,2 kg (103,8 lb) net, 55,2 kg (121,4 lb) inshipping carton
Compact Disc Player
8-times oversampling digital filter: Higher resolution and lower noise
The CD format uses a sampling frequency of 44,1 kHz, to provide a frequency bandwidth of from about 0 Hz to 20 kHz. This frequency can result in the generation of "sampling" noise because its "foldover" frequencies are spactrally close to he audible frequency range. These spurious frequencies - known as sampling noise - are normally eliminated by a higher-order analog filter with steep attenuation response. Such filters, though tend to cause aphase lag in frequencies of 10 kHz and highr, making accurate signal reproduction impossible.
Our 8-times oversampling digital filter offers the solution. It samples the input signal at 8 times the normal frequency (that's 352,8 kHz), shifting the spurious frequenciec far out of the audio range. This makes it possible for us to use a low-order analog filter , made from high-quality discrete parts,with mild attenuation response to remove the spurious frequencies. So our 8-times over-sampling digital filter ends due to folder frequencies, whike maintaining accurate phase linearity up to 20 kHz and enabling low distortion output.
Accu-Focus System: For better frequency response in RF output
The laser beam teht reflects off pits on the surface of tehCD holds billions of bits of digital musical information. The beam is detected by a pickup and the signals are passed on to a photodetector where they are converted into electric RF signals. The photodetector is divided into four components to control the focus servo, inevitably causing phase difference between the four signals the detector has received. The accu-Focus System, however, solves this phase-related problem by adding a delay circuit for the first - ariving signals thus dramatically reducing distortionand improving frequency response in the RF out[ut, especially at high frequencies. As a result, boot noise and distortion, are reduced in the audible frequency range.
Linear-envelope D/A conventer system with twin glitch-less Converters
Our linear-envelope D/A converter system is one of the most advanced designs. Conventional converents use 16 current sources to convert 16-bit data into analog; with them even the slightest error in the current sourcs can lead to conversion distortion. With our new linear-envelope converter, however, we've virtuality eliminated the current-source error. Thus ending conversion distortion.
Moreover there are two converters, one for each channelto end inter-channel phase difference and to provide better sound imaging. And each is a glitch-free type for lower noise.
Linear-motor pickup drive: For stable disc tracking and quick track access
Class-A FET buffer amp: For reduced distortion and improved sound quality
Four separate power supplies: Clean sound beacause analog circuits are insulated from digital crcuits
Anti-resonance concept: Honeycomb chassis, magnetic-clamp disc stabilizer, large insulators
To ensure superb disc tracking and great sound, we,ve come up with the Anti-resonance concept. This concept is expressed in our CD players in the following ways.
The chassis of all our CD players have a ribbed honeycomb construction. This design not only increasses rigidity but also protects the pickup and disc drive system inside from vibration generated by speakers and other external influences.
Optical and coaxial digital outputs
Auto program editing
Time fade editing and "Music Window"
Digital level control: For low-noise, precise level adjustment
On touch digital fade
Variable fade: Fade time may be adjusted from 0 to 9 seconds during operation of Music Window, time fade edit or one-touch fade
Full function SR emote control
Random play: To add fun and variety to digital listening
Ready to play 3-inch (8 cm) CD's
Random programmed play of 24 track
Repeat: 1 track,all tracks, programmed tracks
Auto space and index search
20 tarck music calendar
10 digit fluorescent display
Headphone output with volume control
Timer play (timer optional)
System: Compact disc digital audio system
Frequency response: 4 - 20,000 Hz ±0,5 dB
Signal-to -Noise Ratio: 107 dB
Dynamic Range: 97 dB
Channel separation: 100 dB
Wow and Flutter: Unmeasurable (±0,001%, weighted peak)
Output Voltage:2,0V ±0,5 V
Power Requirement: 120 V 60 Hz
Power consumption: 1W
Dimensions: 420 x 123 x 315 mm
Weight: 5,7 kg
Solid State Stereo Amplifier
180 watts of IHF standard total music power, enough to drive even low efficiency hi-fi speakers.
The wide power bandwidth of 10 Hz to 50,000 Hz with very low IM distortion.
Kenwood's exclusive low level phono inputs for low level output phono cartridges of 2 mV, 0,5 mV or 0,05 mV.
2 pairs of MAG input terminals for 2 set of record players.
Lever type -20 dB muting switch of quick response for momentary quietness during telephone call etc.
2 dB step type tone controls with tone mode switch.
Blue light indicators for input selector switch.
Lever type high and low filter switches.
Large volume/balance control knob located in center of frontpanel.
Pre-amplifier outputs for use with other power amplifier or multichannel system.
Main amplifier inputs for the use with other pre-amplifier, tuner and tape recorder with pre-amplifier, and also these unputs enable you to drive the main amplifier directly.
Speaker terminals for 2 sets of stereo speaker and front panel speaker selector switch.
Exclusive blow-out proof automatic circuit breaker protects power transistors.
Power Output (continous power; at any frequency from 20 -20,000 Hz):
Each channel driven;
58/58 watts at 8 ohms load.
42/42 watts at 16 ohms load.
Both channels driven;
455/45 watts at 8 ohms load.
34/34 watts at 16 ohms load.
Total Music Power (IHF):
170 watts at 8 ohms load.
Harmonic Distortion: Less than 0,5% at rated output from 20 to 20,000 Hz
Intermodulation Distortion (60 Hz & 7,000 Hz, 4:1):
Less than 0,3% at rated output or at any level of less than rated output;
Less than 0,1% at -3 dB rated output
Main Amp. only; 10 Hz to 50,000 Hz ±1 dB
High Level Input; 20 Hz to 50,000 Hz ±1 dB
Sensitivity (from rated output at 8 ohms load):
Phono 1; 2 mV, 0,5 mV, 0,05 mV (switchable)
Phono 2: 2 mV
Tape Head: 2,3 mV
MIC: 2 mV
AUX: 200 mV
Tuner: 200 mV
Tape Play: 200 mV
Main Amp Input: 100 mV
Input Impedance (at 1,000 Hz):
Phono 1 (2 mV); 50 Kohms
Phono 1 (0,5 or 0,05 mV): 200 ohms
Phono 2; 50 Kohms
Tape Head: 100 Kohms
MIC: 100 Kohms
AUX,Tuner,Tape Play: 77 dB
Noise at minimum volume control: 1mV at 8 ohms or 0,0125 milliwatts.
Output Impedance (at speaker terminal):
0,275 ohm at 1,000 Hz
0,39 ohm at 50 Hz
0,275 ohm at 10,000 Hz
Damping Factor (at 1,000 Hz):
58 at 16 ohms load
29 at 8 ohms load
Low Filter (for rumble):
40 Hz Cutoff, 12 dB per octave
80 Hz Cutoff, 12 dB per Octave
High Filter (for scratch ): 8,000 Hz Cutoff, 12 dB per octave
Bass control: ±10 dB at 1000 Hz with 2 dB step switch
Treble Control; ±10 at 10,000 Hz with 2 dB stepswitch
AC 110-120/220-230 volts, 50/60 Hz
18 watts quiescent. 190 watts at full power
Dimensions: 16⁵/₁₆" x 5 ⁵/₃₂" x 11 ¹/₃₂" (W x H x D)
Weight: 24,5 lbs
The CDA823 is an evolution of the renowned CDA822 CD-player. While employing the same outstanding DACs and analog amplifiers as its predecessor, double resampling and reading speed are now introduced. Increased over-sampling of 192 kHz is used to avoid the loss of energy and transparency in a complex analog output filter. The CDA823 also allows for future updates of firmware through flash programmable microprocessors.
The CDA823 uses a true 24-bit, high-resolution, dual differential, digital to analog converter with current output for widest dynamic ranges, fast conversion and lowest noise. Jitter distortion arising from time errors is virtually eliminated by sample rate converters and our precision internal master-clock. All audio power supplies are multi-regulated. The output amplifiers are a priority in the design of this audiophile CD-player. Operational amplifiers with their fixed working conditions and sound qualities can become an obstacle when the designer wants to be in control of the final performance. Therefore, CDA823 employs discrete class-A input amplifiers with carefully selected operational points for the specific electronic environment in which they have to perform. The output circuitry provides both fully balanced and single ended outputs.
S/N ratio ( IHF-A curve ): Better than 100dB
Phase linearity: Less than 0,2” (20Hz-20kHz)
Dynamic range: Better than 100dB
T.H.D.: Less than 0.01 %
D/A converter: 24 bit. Dual differential
Output Analog: Balanced and single ended : 2,0V RMS.
Output Digital: S/PDIF (RCA) 0,5V p-p / 75 ohms
Power consumption: 40W
Nominal voltage: 115V or 230V factory set for destination country only.
Mains voltage: range +/- 12%
Dimensions: 430(W) 110(H) 390(D) mm.
Shipping weight: 10 Kg.