What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

Yamaha R-2000

 The new R-2000 receiver goes beyond ordinary stereo to re-create the full depth, presence and excitement of actually being at a live performance. It's the top of the line of our new R-Series receivers; each designed to bring you pure, accurate musical reproduction. Sound to please the most discriminating audiophile- and features to please the most sophisticated music lover.
 X-Amplifier for more power and cleaner sound.
The R-2000 with our new X-Amplifier is more efficient and more faithful to music than any receiver we've ever built. The circuit design evolved from the nature of music itself. We discovered that true musical crescendos, which require full amplifier power, occur only about 2% of the time. Conventional amplifier designs operate at full power all of the time in anticipation of those loud musical passages. The  remaining 98% of the time, full power isn't required. That means conventional designs waste electricity and produce huge amounts of heat - which shortens component life.
The new Yamaha X-Amplifier works at low power most of the time. A unique comparator circuit switches the amplifier to high power when a lound passage is detected and back to low power when the peak has passed.
As a result, the amp runs significantly cooler than conventional designs, which measurably increases component life. And the X-Amplifier of the new R-2000 is the most  powerful we've ever built into a receiver. It delivers 150 watts RMS per channel with 0,015% THD at 8 ohms from 20 to 20,000Hz. So the new X-Amplifier will easily handle the wide dynamic range of the newest digital and direct-to-disc recording.

 The Spatial Expander.
Normal stereo is limited to the space between two speakers. Yamaha Spatial Expander extends the sound field out beyond the speakers. This wider sound stage recreates the ambience and spaciousness of a live performance. There is more space between musicians, more depth and richness to the overal sound . You get the feeling of live sound without the expense of adding extra speakers or amplifiers. The Spatial Expander works with any good stereo source material. Phono, FM or Tape. For the first time you can enjoy the feeling of sitting front row center at your favorite concert.
Continuously variable loudness control.
At low levels, music sounds like it's missing something. That's because at low volume your ear loses its ability to hear high and low frequencies.
Most "Loudness" controls compensate for this by boosting the high and low frequencies. This can lead to increased distortion. Yamaha found a smoother way. By suppressing the mid-range. And unlike everybody else, we let you adjust the amount of loudness compensation to suit your taste. So at low listening levels you get full, balanced sound without distortion.
The Record Out Function
With Yamaha's independent Record Out, you can record from any source while listening to any other. You can also feed a separate, different signal to a second amplifier and speakers in another part of your home. So you can have two complete home music systems for just the price of an extra amplifier and speakers.

Now you can have continuous music without getting up to switch sound sources. For example you can set the R-2000 to a favorite FM station. Then you can put on a record and the receiver will automatically switch to the phono mode. Once the record is over, the receiver automatically switches back to your favorite station. You're never without sound.
Station-locking Tuning.
Quartz-locked tuning is accurate, But quartz tuning circuits have an internal frequency oscilator which generates RF signals. These signals can be picked up by the tuner and be mixed with the regular audio signal to cause distortion. To solve this problem Yamaha engineers developed a unique microprocessor chip a memory. It stores the exact tuning location of every Am and FM station. When you tune a Yamaha receiver, the microprocessor produces exactly the frequency you're looking for instantly … from its memeory. Tuning is 100% accurate. All you get is clean music.
Pushbutton Tuning.
The Yamaha R-2000 virtually tunes itself. At the push of a  button, the tuning circuitry sweeps the band in the direction you desire. The receiver locks automatically onto the next station - perfectly. You can also pre-select seven FM and AM frequencies for instant access to your 14 favorite station.  We could go on. But hearing is believing. There are six completely new R-Series receivers. Each step up brings  more power, convenience and versatility. All feature the accurate, musical sound quality for which Yamaha has become world-renowed. And naturally, ever Yamaha product is backed by a nationwide network of Preferred Customer Service Centres. The new R-Series receivers will make a dramatic improvement in the enjoyment and realism you get from home music system.  Trully the next step in sound from Yamaha.

Minimum RMS Output Power per Channel:
150 W (8Ω, 20 to 20,000Hz, 0,015% THD)
165 W (8Ω, 1 kHz, 0,01% THD)
Total harmonic Distortion:
Phono MC  to Rec Out (3V output) : 0,01%
Phono MM to Rec Out (3V output) : 0,005%
Aux/Tape to Pre Out (2V output) : 0,005%
Aux/Tape to Sp Out (8Ω, 1W) : 0,005%
Main In to Sp Out (8Ω, 1W) : 0,005%
IM Distortion Ratio:
Aux/Tape to Sp Out (8Ω, 75W) : 0,01%
Power Bandwidth (8Ω, 75W, 0,02% THD):  5 to 40,000 Hz
Damping Factor:  Better than 60 (8Ω, 1 kHz)
Frequency Response:  5 to 50,000 Hz
RIAA Deviation
Phono MM (20 to 20,000Hz) : ±0,2 dB
Phono MC (30 to 20,000Hz)  : ±0,3 dB
Input Sensitivity/Impedance
Phono MM (100pF or 220 pF) : 2,5 mV/47 kΩ
Phono MM (100pF) : 2,5mV/100 kΩ
Phono MC : 100 µV/100 kΩ
Aux/Tape : 120 mV/47 kΩ
Main In : 1 V/47 kΩ
Maximum Input Level (0,01% THD)
Phono MM (20 to 20,000 Hz) : 250 mV
Phono MM (1 kHz) : 280 mV
Phono Mc (1 kHz) : 11 mV
Output Level/Impedance
Rec Out (phono) : 120 mV/470 Ω
Pre Out : 1 V/430 Ω
Headphone Output : 780 mW (0,015% THD)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (IHF A Network)
Phono MM (5mV, Input Shorted) : 90 dB
Phono MC (500µV, Input Shorted) : 84 dB
Aux/Tape (Input Shorted): 100 db
Main In (Input Shorted) : 120 dB
Residual Noise (IHF A Network):  50 µV
Channel Separation (1 kHz, vol. -30 dB, 5,1 kΩ):
Aux/Tape to Other Channel : -64 dB
Phono MM to Other Channel : -64 dB
Tone Control Characteristics:
Bass (boost/cut) : ±11 dB at 80 Hz
Treble (boots/cut) : ±12 dB at 10 kHz
Center Frequencies
Bass : 80 Hz
Treble : 10 kHz
Presence Control Range : ±8 dB ( Center Frequency)
Center Frequency : 0,8 / 1,6 / 3,2 kHz
Filter Characteristics
Low (Subsonic): 15 Hz, -12 dB/oct
High : 8 kHz, -6 dB/oct
Continuous Loudness Control (Level Related Equalization)
Max. Attenuation : -20 dB at 1 kHz
Rec. Output Level/Impedance (Fixed)
FM (100% mod. 1 kHz) : 500 mV/1,8 kΩ
AM (30% mod. 1 kHz) : 150 mV/1,8 kΩ

FM Section
Tuning Range:  87,6 to 108 MHz
50 dB Quieting Sensitivity
Mono : 2,8 µV (14,2 dBf)
Stereo : 25 µV (33,2 dBf)
Usable Sensitivity
IHF Mono (1kHz 100% mod.)
300 Ω : 2,0 µV (11,3 dBf)
75 Ω : 1,0µV (11,3 dBf)
(1kHz, 30% mod.)
300 Ω : 1,6 µV (9,3 dBf)
75 Ω : 0,8 µV (9,3 dBf)
Image Response Ratio (98 MHz) : 70 dB
IF Response Ratio (98 MHz) : 100 dB
Spurious Response Ratio (98 MHz) : 100 dB
AM Suppression Ratio (IHF):  65 dB
Capture Ratio (IHF):  Local 1,2 dB , DX 2,5 dB
Alternate Channel Selectivity (IHF):  Local 30dB, DX 82 dB
Selectivity (Two Signals):  DX 68 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 
Mono : 85 db
Stereo : 81 dB
Distortion (Mono)
100 Hz : Local 0,06%, DX 0,1%
1 kHz : Local 0,06%, DX 0,3%
6 kHz : Local 0,08%, DX 0,7%
Distortion (Stereo)
100 Hz : Local 0,07%, DX 0,1%
1 khz : Local 0,07%, Dx 0,5%
6 kHz : Local 0,09%, DX 0,8%
Intermodulation Distortion(IHF)
Mono : Local 0,07%, DX 0,5%
Stereo : Local 0,08%, DX 1,0%
Stereo Separation (Local)
50 Hz : 50 dB
1 kHz : 50 dB
10 kHz : 45 dB
Frequency Response
50 Hz to 10 khz : ±0,3 dB
30 Hz to 15 khz : ±0,3/0,5 dB
Subcarrier Product Ratio :  65 dB
Muting Threshold (DX):  2,8 µ (14,2 dBf)
Auto-DX Threshold:  32 µV (35,3 dBf)
Tuning level Threshold:  56 µV (40,2 dBf0

AM Section
Tuning Range:  525 to 1,605 kHz
Usable Sensitivity (Loop antenna): 200µV (46 dB µ/m)
Selectivity:  30 db
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  50dB
Image Response Ratio:  40 dB
Spurious Response Ratio:  50 dB
Distortion:  0,3% (1kHz)
Tuning Level Threshold:  3mV (70 dB µ/m)

General Characteristics
USA, Canada and General : 75 Transistors; 33 ICs; 7 FETs; 70 Diodes; 22 LEDs
Europe and Australia : 78 Transistors; 33 ICs; 7 FETs; 70 Diodes; 22 LEDs
Power Supply
USA, Canada : 120 V, 60 Hz
General : 110 -120 V/220 -240 V,  50/60 Hz
Europe : 220 V, 50 Hz
Britain and Australia : 240 V, 50 Hz
Power Consumption
USA, Canada : 550 W
Europe, Australia : 920 W
General : 330 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  540 x 122 x 385,6 mm (21¼" x 4¾" x 15¼")
Weight:  13 kg (28 lbs, 10 oz)

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