What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

Yamaha YHD-1

 Each of Yamaha's exciting new headphones has been designed to offer an optimum blend of high-fidelity music reproduction, sonic efficiency, and extended fatigue-free music enjoyment. The most immediately striking aspect of the YHD-1 Natural Sound Stereo headphones is the sophisticated new design by Mario Bellini, a world-famous designer highly appraised for his ergonomic "human-engineering" approach to styling. Bellini's new design enables the YHD-1 to be worn for hours on end without a trace of fatigue. Yet the deeply detailed musical transients and exciting sound dynamics are both products of Yamaha's exclusive Orthodynamic design.
These headphones are also remarkably efficient, meaning that they deliver generous levels of sound output with astonishingly low levels of distortion from comparatively low input levels. When used with portable headphone stereo players with minimal output levels, they deliver truly larger than life performance.
 Minimal fatigue design by Mario Bellini.
The striking new design by Mario Bellini is characterized by the headphones fitting closer to the head. Materials have been carefully chosen to pare the total weight of these headphones down to minimal levels. The Yhd-1 weight just 145 grams. With its well ventilated design, the lightweight two-piece headband provides a comfortable fit as well as a sophisticated appearance. The headband attaches to the leading edge of the drivers, allowing the drivers to rest naturally against your ears. Most of the headband pressure comes to rest on the part of your head just in front of your ears, rather than on your ears themselves.  The ear pads flip open slightly to rest comfortably over the entire surface of the ear for a truly weightless feel.

How Yamaha's Orthodynamic Design creates better sound.
Despite widely differing acoustic conditions for headphone sound reproduction, most headphone designs just use loudspeaker-type drivers that have been scaled down for headphone use. Yamaha took a completely different approach, designing the entire headphone driver unit from scratch. The result was our orthodynamic design. It consists of two sintered ferrite magnets with a combination voice-coil/diaphragm sandwiched in between. The YHD-1 incorporates special anistropic-type magnets for even sharper response and higher efficiency.
 Magnetic Flux and the Voice Coil / Diaphragm.
The disc-shaped driver magnets are actually sets of distinct magnets, coaxially arranged with each successive one in opposite polarity. In between, there is a combination voice coil/diaphragm constructed of super-thin lighweight polyester film only 6 µm thick, corrugated in the direction of movement for optimum compliance. It's fixed only at the outside edge for maximum freedom of movement. This diaphragm is printed with aluminum voice coils wound in opposite direction, so that the diaphragm 'breathes" back and forth in precise response to the music signal. Openings in both the disc driver magnets and the driver body permit the air flow necessary for unimpeded diaphragm movement for strong bass response, while felt and urethane foam damping materials provide optimum load to the diaphragm for natural sound response over the entire audible spectrum.

Your ears will tell you what the specs confirm.
Both of these headphones deliver extremely well balanced response across the entire audio spectrum - 20 Hz all the way up to 20,000 Hz. The output sound pressure level, which is the amount of sound produced for the power input, is a spectacular 100 dB/mW for the YHD-1. performance this efficient enables you to enjoy genuine Yamaha naturas Sound fidelity even with today's popular portable headphone stereo players. Indoors or out, you'll never be without the finest sound quality ever possible from a headphone.
Specifications  YHD-1
Impedance:  125 Ω
Magnet Diameter:  ø38 mm (1 ½")
Magnet Material:  Anisotropic Ferrite
Diaphragm Diameter:  ø38 mm (1 ½")
Diaphragm Film:  6 µm Polyester
Frequency response:  20 - 20,000 Hz
Output SPL:  100 dB/mW (109 dB/V)
Rated Input:  1 W
Cord:  2,4 m (8 ft.) straight

Weight [cord/without cord]:  167 g (5,9 oz) / 145 g (5,1 oz)

Denon DCD-820

 The DCD-820 Compact Disc Player incorporates Denon's Super Linear Concerter which prevents deterioration of sound quality in PCM playback systems. This assures accurate reproduction of the digital signals recorded on compact discs no matter whether they are pure studio recordings or "live" performance recordings. All parts making up this CD player have selected with the greatest care in order to produce high quality realistic playback of the full musical content on compact discs.
 Double Super Linear Converter
The use of Denon's unique system and D/A converters with excellent resolution to prevent zero cross distortion, the main cause of reduced sound quality in the PCM playback system, make for sound field reproduction with rich musical expression.
 High Performance Digital Filter
The DCD-820 uses independent D/A converters for the left and right channels and an 8x oversampliong high precision digital filter to bring out the best of the analog filter and offer, crisp sound.

Digital Output
The data on the compact disc is output in digital format, so the music can be reproduced on an external digital processor or D/A unit.
 Simple Playback of 8 cm CD Singles
8 cm CD singles can be played without using an adaptor.

Function and Displays
Direct selection; automatic search; programmed playback, repeat playback; manual search; auto space; time mode; auto edit; emphasis feature and headphone jack input.
Displays: Track number; time; music calendar, and engaged modes.
Remote Control System:  RC-220 Unit, infrared pulse system.
Audio Sections
DAC D/A Converter:  2 x PCM56P-L  -  SM5818AP
CD Mechanism:  KSS 150A
No. Of Channels:  2-channels
Frequency Response:  2 - 20,000 Hz
Dynamic Range:  97 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  102 dB
Harmonic Distortion:  0,004% (1 kHz)
Separation:  98 dB (1 kHz)
Wow & Flutter:  below measurable limit ±0,001% W.peak)
Output Voltage:  0 - 2,0 V variable
Discs:  Compact Disc format
General Characteristics
Power Supply:  220 V 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  12 W
Dimensions (W  x H x D):  434 x 103 x 315 mm (17,1" x 4,0" x 12,4")

Weight:  4 kg

Monitor Audio R 100

 Monitor Audio, located in Cambridge England, was formed in 1972 by Molqbal. His intention was simply to produce cosmetically appeealing loudspeakers that accurately reproduce music while representing value for money.
M.Q. Cabinets Limited, Monitor Audio's cabinet manufacturing facility, was established in 1976, allowing Monitor Audio to fully control the quality of workmanship that goes into every pair of their loudspeakers. M.Q. Cabinets rapidly estabilished an impressive reputation for the quality of their solid wood and real wood veneered cabinets. So much so that they have produced or currently produce, cabinets for every well known (and not so well known) British loudspeaker manufacturer.
However, it is sound quality that is Monitor Audio's raison d'être. Committed to pushing the understanding of loudspeaker technology forward, Monitor Audio have ready access to anechoic and other test facilities at G.E.C. and Cambridge University. Their new metal-dome tweeter is an example of this commitment. In several respects this unit is significantly more advanced than competitor's comparable tweeters. It is a full size 25 mm, metal dome made from aluminum with the dome and coil former formed as one piece. High temperature wiring is used and the tweeter is vented in four places. It is additionally ferrofluid cooled and damped leading to an increasse of up to 30% in power handling. This is the first fully suspended metal dome, and as such, works much like a normal non-metal tweeter, without the inherent distortion but with the benefit of high efficiency levels and power handling capabilities.

The use of Nitrile in their woofer assembly is also leading the way. This material developed by NASA has, as its property, the ability to remain unaffected by climatic changes. As the temperatures and humidity of the listening room changes the loudspeakers maintain a level of consistent sound quality.

Critically acclaimed designs, state-of-the-art. Materials and technology, and a finished product fit to grace the finest surroundings need to be incorporated with an eye for detail to ensure an equal level of sound quality. T-bolts are used to mount the drivers into the cabinets securely. Speaker grilles have bevelled edges to ensure minimal defraction and consequent distortion of the sound. Optional stands are available which ensure the correct height from the floor is obtained achieving an accurate tonal balance from the speaker. But when all is said and done the proof is in the pudding. Simply select a model that siuts your requirements and listen. You'll be convinced that Monitor Audio is truely the symbol of quality.

Monitor Audio R100
The R100 is a simple two-way enclosure design, utilizing a 1 inch soft dome tweeter and 8 inch woofer.
You will be immediately impressed by the fact that even in this price range Monitor Audio use real wood veneers, making the R100 a beautiful piece of furniture.
Special attention is paid to components and construction to ensure the R100 sounds as good as it looks. The speaker is internally braced for rigidity thus reducing colourations that vibrating cabinets can add to the music. To this end, cabinet resonances are further damped with an acoustic foam lining.
 A simple four element crossover that matches the woofer to the tweeter is hardwired using Monitor Audio's own multistrand cable.
This minimal crossover ensures high efficiency and low distortion, as the musical signal is not required to negotiate a complicated network of electrical elements.
The result is an undemanding loudspeaker that doesn't require high power to produce an articulate, detailed and dynamic sound.
System Type:  sealed Box
Frequency Range:  40 Hz - 20 kHz
Frequency response:  60 Hz - 20 kHz  ±3 dB
Impedance:  8 Ω
Sensitivity:  89 dB
Recommended Amp. Power:  15 - 60 watts
Dimensions (H x W x D):  400 x 250 x 180 mm
Weight:  5,8 kg
Finish:  Walnut Black

Toshiba ST-445

 Toshiba Digital Sythesizer Tuner ST-445
FM Tuner Section
Frequency Range:  87,5 - 108 MHz (0,1 MHz step)
Sensitivity (IHF):  1,9 µV (10,8 dBf)
Harmonic Distortion [Mono/Stereo]:  0,15% / 0,3% (1 kHz)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio [Mono/Stereo]:  72 dB /68 dB
Frequency Response:  30 - 15,000 Hz ±1,0 dB
Selectivity (IHF):  70 dB (±400 kHz)
Image Rejection:  50 dB
IF Rejection:  80 dB
Capture Ratio:  1,5 dB
Spurious Response:  70 dB
AM Suppression:  55 dB
Stereo Separation:  40 dB (at 1 kHz)
Output:  650 mV 9400 Hz, 100% Mod.)
AM Tuner Section
Frequency Range:  525 - 1605 kHz (1 kHz step)
Sensitivity:  300 µV/m
Selectivity:  30 dB
Image Rejection:  40 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  50 dB
Memory:  6 Channels each band
Functions: Manual tuning up and down; Rec calibration
Power Supply:  AC 120 V /220 V; 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  9,5 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  420 x 146 x 257 mm

Weight: 3,3 kg

Toshiba SB-445

 Toshiba Stereo Amplifier SB-445
Continuous power Output:
20 - 20,000 Hz both channel driven :  2 x 45 W  at 8 Ω; 2 x 55 W at 4 Ω
1 kHz both channel driven :  2 x 55 W at 8 Ω; 2 x 60 W at 4 Ω
Total Harmonic Distortion:  0,06% (at rated power , 8 Ω)
Frequency Response:  5 Hz - 100 kHz (-3 dB)
Power Bandwidth (IHF):  10 Hz -35 kHz (0,1%)
Damping Factor:  25
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (IHF A-network): 
Phono : 70 dB
Tuner, Aux :  93 dB
Input Sensitivity/Impedance:
Phono : 2,5 mV/ 47 k Ω
Tuner :  150 mV/47 k Ω
Aux, Tape :  150 mV/47 k Ω
Mic. :  1,0 mV/ 47 k Ω
Output Level Tape Rec:  150 mV
Tone Control:
Bass :  ±7 dB at 100 Hz
Treble :  ±9 dB at 10 kHz
Frequency Response:
Phono :  20 Hz - 20 kHz  ±0,5 dB (RIAA equalization)
Phono Overload Level:  150 mV (RMS)
Power Supply:  AC 120 V, 220 V; 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  220 W
Dimensions (W X H X D):  420 x 146 x 257 mm

Weight:  6,6 kg

Tandberg TCD 330

 The TCD330 is the top model in the Tandberg range of cassette tape recorders and in many ways compares favourably with open reel machines; 3 heads, source abd tape tests, editing facility, 3 motors, completely electronic controlled, remote control, servo controlled winding, dual-capstan closed-loop tape path, and dual Dolby.

Stable tape transport. Full control over tape movement with exceptionally gentle tape handling.
Memory function.
Tandberg developed input circuits, optimized for minimum noise regardless of source impedance.
Peak indicating meters - the only correct way to measure sound level after equalization. Also indicate playback level.
Editing facility.
Decoder for recording Dolbyized FM programmes.
Built-in MPX filter.
Matched to all types of good quality tape.
Adjustable output level.
Automatic stop for wind and rewind.
Front jack for stereo headphones.
The TCd330 is delivered in teak or rosewood,( oak or walnut to order)
 Tandberg was the first company in the world to design a cassette tape recorder with a combination of 3 motors and an advanced tape transport called the dual-capstan closed-loop system. On the TCD330 we have taken the development a stage further and included professional features and facilities normally found only on the most advanced open reel machines. This means that with the TCD330 Tandberg is setting new standards with the application of advanced technology, professional facilities and a professional performance for cassette machines.

3 Heads. Source and tape tests as you record.
This facility has been normal on open reel machines for many years, but it has been missing on cassette machines. Teh TCD330 has separate record and playback heads placed in the tape path where they enable you to listen to the recording as it takes place, but a fraction of a second after it has been recorded (tape test). With this facility we have fully expolited the advantage of 3 separate heads located in the correct places.
 Completely Logic Controlled.
All the operational modes are logic controlled - including even the cassette eject mechanism. The control system is an "electronic brain" with integrated circuits. This corresponds to several hundred transistors and provides a very compact and reliable design. Regardless of how you use the mode buttons, the "electronic brain" always ensures that the tape flows smoothly and is not damaged. The TCD330 has 3 motors controlled by electronics. The two reel motors are connected directly to the reel spindles while the third motor controls the capstans. The number of moving parts has been reduced to a minimum - a big advantage because all mechanism sooner or later wear out and need adjusting or replacing. The advantages with electronic control of teh TCD330 are first and foremost, no mechanical time delays between operational modes and second, all operation times are minimal.

Rapid Servo-controlled Winding.
The TCD330 winds and rewinds rapidly and has an automatic electronic servo-system controlling the wind/rewind speed. The design problem is that the tape can easily be streatched at the ends if the speed and winding power are too great. We solved this problem by automatically reducing the speed as the tape gets near the end. So the tape speed is always correct an the tape is never exposed to powerful tugs when it stops.
 Azimuth Adjustable on record Head.
The critical stage in the recording process is where the tape crosses the record head. Correct reproduction of the highest tones is very dependent on the angle between the tape and the head face. The angle must by 90° to achieve the best performance. A 10° error will give 6 dB loss at 15 kHz, and 15° error will give 6 dB loss at 10 kHz.
The tape path is always slightly different from one cassette to another because of small deviations in cassette construction. So the tape/head angle will not always be 90°. The TCd330 has a simple, built-in head - angle adjustment facility that allows you to set the head exactly to 90° for any cassette. So you get the best results from every cassette.
 Editing Facility.
Another important advantage with the TCD330. because you can go over directly from playback to record without going via stop, you can edit tapes and clean-up recording overlaps in a simple, precise way without clicks.

The Dolby B Circuits.
The TCD330 Dolby B circuits are used for normal record and playback operations and to record so-called "Dolbyized FM programmes" in stereo. Increasingly more countries are transmitting stereo programmes on FM using Dolby noise reduction systems.  These programmes are virtually free from hiss at the transmitter. But to take advantage of this improvement in the programme quality and to restore the correct frequency response the reproducing equipment must include a Dolby decoder. The decoder can be either in the radio receiver or in the tape recorder. With the Dolby N.R. button in the position "FM" the TCd330 acts as a decoder.
Tape Speed:  1-7/8 i.p.s.
Speed Tolerance:  ±05%
Wow and Flutter:  0,18% (peak DIN 45 511); 0,12% (WRMS)
Frequency Response (DIN 45 500):  20 - 20,000 Hz (30 - 18,000 Hz, ±3 dB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  65 dB (weighted, DIN 45 500); 55 dB (unweighted , DIN 45 500)
Crosstalk Attenuation:
Side 1 to side 2 :  60 dB
Track 1 to track 2 :  35 dB
Harmonic Distortion:  0,3%(from amp. At 0 dB); 3% (from tape at 0 dB record level)
Input Sensitivity/Impedance (max. Voltage at 400 Hz)
Mic : 0,15 mV - 20 mV
Line : 80 mV - 10 V/ 470 k Ω
Radio : 8 mV-1 V/47 k Ω
Output Voltage/Load Impedance (with unlouded output or power output for each channel)
Radio : 0,775 mV/5 k Ω
Line : 1,5 V/0,1 k Ω
Headphones : 5 mV/8 Ω
Power Requirements:  115 V, 230 V,  50 or 60 Hz
Power Consumption:  40 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  470 x 105 x 230 mm (18-1/2 x 4-1/8 x 9-1/8 inches)

Weight:  6,6 kg (14,5 lb)

Tandberg TCD 310

 In professional reel-to-reel tape recorders and in the most advanced semi-professional machines 3 motors are taken for granted. Now Tandberg has made a Hi-Fi cassette tape recorder which is the first in the world with 3 motors, with a very special tape transport system, with peak level meters and with the Dolby B noise reduction system.

Specifications better than requirements of DIN 45 500
Tape transport system has 2 capstan and 2 pressure rollers (closed loop)

Amongst other things this means that speed variations are reduced to a very low level.
Electronic controls
High quality magnetic heads
Large peak level meters
Mixing in mono
Automatic stop
Can be used in vertical position
For use with separate Hi-Fi stereo amplifier
 The Dolby B System
The TCD310 has the Dolby noise reduction system. This reduces tape noise by about 10 dB compared with conventional systems. The Dolby system is especially important in a cassette tape recorder because the tape noise is higher than in a reel-to-reel tape recorder. The Dolby system can be connected and disconnected with a switch.

Tape Selector
The magnetic heads and the electronic circuits in the TCD310 were designed for maximum exploitation of the best characteristics of the newest tapes. A selector allows you to adjust the tape recorder to optimum for different types of tape.

Peak level meters
These provide the best method of controlling a recording. The meters can also be used to indicate the replay level.
 The Tape Transport
In a tape recorder it is a big advantage if the number of moving parts is reduced to a minimum. All mechanism sooner or later wear out, and complicated clutch systems and mechanical linkages contribute to a worsening performance. This is particularly true for cassette machines because the cassette's construction gives narrow tolerances for high quality sound reproduction.
Even heavily worn cassettes will not be damaged in the TCD310 because it has a built-in safety device that automatically stops the tape-drive  if the tape is jammed.
The dual-capstan closed-loop system consists of 2 capstan with precision flywheels and 2 pinch rollers. This provides a stable tape path with minimum speed variations. The mechanism is simple and solid giving a reliable performance. The tape transport system provides the correct tape tension across the magnetic heads and cancels irregularities in the sound level caused by the pressure pad in the cassette. During record/play nad fast wind/rewind the driving mechanism is automatically disconnected at the end of the tape.

 3 Motors
The TCD310 has one synchronous motor for record/replay and two motors for fast forward and backward winding. These two motors are in direct contact with the spool spindles. This ensures that the number of moving parts is reduced to a minimum, and there is no complicated mechanical transmission that could eventually wear and reduce the performance of the machine. The spooling speed is high and it only takes about 40 seconds to spool a C60 cassette.
 Self-Adjusting Input Amplifier
This novel self-adjusting input amplifier was specially designed at Tandberg Radiofabrikk. While conventional input amplifiers are optimised to a particular programme source and are often badly matched to other programme sources, this amplifier adjust itself automatically to different programme sources (radio, record player with ceramic pick-up, amplifier, microphone). The result is something that cannot be achieved with conventional amplifiers; a full dynamic range and the absolute minimum noise from the input circuits - regardless of which programme source and which recording level are used.
Tape Speed:  1-7/8 i.p.s.
Speed Tolerance:  ±1,0%
Wow and Flutter:  0,2% (peak DIN 45 511); 0,15% (WRMS)
Frequency Response (DIN 45 500):  30 - 16,000 Hz (40 - 14,000 Hz ±3 dB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  65 dB (weighted, DIN 45 500); 55 dB (unweighted , DIN 45 500)
Crosstalk Attenuation:
Side 1 to side 2 :  60 dB
Track 1 to track 2 :  35 dB
Harmonic Distortion:  0,3%(from amp. At 0 dB); 3% (from tape at 0 dB record level)
Input Sensitivity/Impedance (max. Voltage at 400 Hz)
Mic : 0,15 mV - 20 mV
Line : 40 mV - 5 V/ 220 k Ω
Radio : 8 mV-1 V/47 k Ω
Output Voltage/Load Impedance (with unlouded output or power output for each channel)
Radio : 0,775 mV/10 k Ω
Line : 0,775 V/10 k Ω
Power Requirements:  115 V, 230 V,  50 or 60 Hz
Power Consumption:  34 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  430 x 105 x 230 mm (17 x 4-1/4 x 9-1/4 inches)

Weight:  6,5 kg (15,5 lb)


 If you can do without a computer but insist on recording/playback performance quality as high as that in our top-of-the-line KD-A8, you want JVC's KD-A77. it has three-head monitor capability and is ready to play back, record and erase the new metal tapes thanks to our SA Heads. Full-Logic 2-Motor transport means operational ease. The slim and trim profile makes it an ideal match for your sophisticated hi-fi setup.
You can hear the sound you've just recorded as you record with this 3-head deck.
Now you can hear your tapes as you record them. You can compare the original with the recorded signals instantly; with no chance of mistake, you can be sure you're getting the most out of your tape and deck. The  three heads in the KD-A77 are contained in two housing, one for the 2-Gap SA Erase head, the other holding the combination Record and Playback heads of the SA type. Ideal gap widths for for the latter two mean better recording and better response.
 Special Features:
Three Sen-Alloy heads; combined SA record/play (X-cut type) heads make possible record monitoring. The erase head is a 2-gap head also made from SA.
Two motor ID mechanism; this mechanism incorporates a newly developed back Tension system which gives improved tape contact with the head.
Self-illuminated buttons for full logic mechanical operation (excluding Stop or Rec-Mute modes.)
Three position Metal-Tape-Compatible tape select switch. (automatic switching between SA/Chrome and Normal)
The Rec Mute button is at the right side of the mechanical operation buttons.
Super  Automatic Noise Reduction System (ANRS), which reduces tape hiss to an inaudible level  and Super ANRS which improves linearity at high frequencies are incorporated.
2-stepped Gear/Oil Damped Cassette Lid
New Metal-Tape-Compatible multi-peak level indicators (+9, +6, +3, -2, -7 dB), together with back-lit VU meters with the expanded coverage from +7 VU to -20 VU, meke level observation easier.
Memory Stop/Play and Timer Standby (Rec and Play)
Output Volume Control, for Line and headphones use

1 - SA Recording Head   
2 - 4 µm gaps   
3 - 1 µm gaps   
4 - X-cut SA Playback Head   
5 - SA chips   
6 - Shield plate   
7 - Zinc die-casting head base
Combination SA heads for recording and playback.
Due to its high recording density, Metal Tape requires recording and playback heads that are made of materials having a greater maximum magnetic flux density than conventional ferrite or permalloy. The combined record/playback heads, newly developed for the KD-A77, both employ SA to ensure high performance.
The SA head has advantages over conventional heads in various fields such as fewer core loss, greater gap accuracy, better wear and corrosion resistance. However, its biggest feature is its high maximum magnetic flux density. Because of this, the SA head can bring the most out of the superior performance of metal Tape. This is especially true for its extended frequency response at high frequencies; something that has never been possible to realize with usual cassette tapes.
The playback head incorporates a unique X-cut core structure to improve the characteristics of the low frequency range. With ordinary core configurations, playback output is subject to peaks and dips in the low frequency range. This is called the "contur effect"; this effect is caused by interference between the length of the tape-to-head contact area and the wavelength of the recording frequency. With the X-cut design the core is cut diagonally to enable the tape to leave the head, not abruptly, but with a gradually lessening contact area.
Specifications KD-A77

Type: Stereo Cassette Deck
Track system:  4-track, 2-channel
Tape Speed:  4,8 cm/sec. (1-7/8 inch/sec)
Motors:  FG Type DC Servo Motor for Capstan; DC Motor for Reel
Heads:  3 Sen-Alloy heads
SA head for recording
X-cut head for playback
2-Gap head for erasing
Frequency Response
At -20 VU Recording:
Metal Tape :  15 - 20,000 Hz [25 - 18,000 Hz (±3 dB)]
SA/Chrome Tape :  15 - 20,000 Hz [25 - 18,000 (±3 dB)]
SF/Normal Tape :  15 - 19,000 Hz [25 - 17,000 Hz (±3 dB)]
At 0 VU Recording:
Metal Tape :  25 - 12,500 Hz (±3 dB)
SA/Chrome Tape :  25 - 8,000 Hz (±3 dB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
ANRS - OFF :  60 dB (weighted, 1 kHz, 3% THD, Metal tape)
ANRS- ON :  Improved by 5 dB at 1 kHz and 10 dB above 5 kHz
Effects of Super ANRS (Normal Tape)
Improvement of S/N Ratio :  The same as with ANRS
Improvement of Frequency Response [0 VU / +5 VU Recording]:  6 dB at 10 kHz / 12 dB at 10 kHz
Improvement of Distortion [0 VU / +5 VU Recording]:  3% or less at 10 kHz / 3% or less at 10 kHz
Wow and Flutter:  0,04% (WRMS);  0,14% (DIN 45 500)
Harmonic Distortion:  K3 : 0,4%;  THD : 1,0% (Metal tape , 1 kHz)
Fast Forward Time:  85 sec. Or less (with C-60 cassette)
Rewind Time:  85 sec. Or less (with C-60 cassette)
Bias Frequency:  85 kHz (AC bias)
Erasure:  85 kHz (AC  erasure)
Input  Terminals:
Microphone Jack x 2
Max Sensitivity/ Matching Impedance :  0,2 mV (-72 dBs)/600 Ω - 10 k Ω
Line In Jack x 2
Min. Input level/ Impedance :  80 mV (-20 dBs)/100 k Ω
Output  Terminals
Line Out Jack x 2
Output level/Impedance :  0 - 300 mV/6 k Ω
Matching Impedance :  50 k Ω or more
Phones Jack x 1
Output Level/Impedance :  0 - 0,5 mW/8 Ω - 1 k Ω
Semiconductors:  49 Transistors;  18 ICs;  14 LEDs; 59 Diodes
Power Requirement:  AC 100/120/220/240 V, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  36 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  450 x 120 x 160 mm (17-3/4 x 4-3/4 x 12-7/16 inches)

Weight:  8,3 kg (18,3 lbs)


Luxury is relative in hi-fi  -and not always related to cost. The design concept of the KD-A8 stresses convenience, versatility and extraordinary sound fidelity. As we hear it, our new top-of-the-line model has all these qualities, and more;
Metal Tape Compatible with SA Heads.
Computerized B.E.S.T. Tuning System for Bias/EQ/Sensitivity Tuning.
JVC S&L (Search and Lock) Automatic level Setting
Full Logic Two-Motor Transport
 JVC-Exclusive B.E.S.T. Tuning System ends tape guesswork.
This unique system uses a built-in computer to help you get a flat response (40 to 12,5 kHz ±1 dB) from any type or brand of tape. All automatically and all within half a minute. Ordinary EQ/Bias selectors can't begin to match it. The initials stand for Bias, Equalization and Sensitivity of Tape. All three factors are sampled and set for:
Detection of normal vs. chrome (and "chrome-equivalent") tapes.
Bias adjustment (for widest possible dynamic range)
High frequency equalization (for ideally flat range)
Tape sensitivity adjustment (within ±0,5 dB for proper operation of noise reduction systems)
Self-detection/self-correction for errors.
 Still more luxurious JVC features:
Fully compatible with the new metal Tape format.
Computer B.E.S.T. Tuning System for the automatic adjustment of Bias, Equalization and Sensitivity of tape.
Computer B.E.S.T.  Tuning System for the automatic adjustment of the recording when you are not a t home.
Search & Lock mechanism to Search for the maximum source signal level and lock the recording level to the optimum setting.
X-cut  Sen-Alloy record/play head for improved frequency response, minimizing the contuor effect.
2-Gap Sen-Alloy erase head for perfect compatibility with Metal tape.
2-Motors, Independent Drive mechanism makes the wow and flutter a low 0,035% (WRMS)
Full-logic control operation
Super ANRS  - Automatic Noise Reduction System by JVC
5-LED peak Indicator (MPI) - peaks instantly displayed in  -10, -5, 0 dB, +3 and +6 dB within one millisecond.
Bias and Equalizatiom selected with one 3 position tape select switch.
Indicators are grouped so as to be easy to chek.
Rec Mute switch, Memory Counter with memory Stop/Play, Timer Standby, Real-Time pause.
Two-Stepped Gear/Oil- Damped Cassette lid.
Automatic input selector (Mic - Line)
Remote Control terminal for optional remote control unit R-30E
 Set-up takes about 25 seconds on the average; the deck automatically records test signals, samples them, and tunes itself for the actual tape in use. The system, with its microcomputer brain, is available only from JVC.

JVC's S&L (Search and Lock) system automatically sets maximum recording level for carefree taping.
This super deck is Fully compatible for metal Tape playback and recording.
An amazingly low 0,035% wow & flutter (WRMS) results from JVC's unique Two-Motor ID system.
Fingertip action on full logic electronic tape transport mode-change buttons.

Specifications KD-A8

Type: Component Stereo Cassette Deck
Motors:  FG Type DC Servo Motor for Capstan; DC Motor for Reel
Heads:  2-SA (Sen-Alloy) heads
X-cut head for recording and playback
2-Gap head for erasing
Frequency Response
At -20 VU Recording:
Metal Tape :  15 - 18,000 Hz [25 - 17,000 Hz (±3 dB)]
SA/Chrome Tape :  15 - 18,000 Hz [25 - 17,000 (±3 dB)]
SF/Normal Tape :  15 - 17,000 Hz [25 - 16,000 Hz (±3 dB)]
At 0 VU Recording:
Metal Tape :  25 - 12,500 Hz (±3 dB)
SA/Chrome Tape :  25 - 8,000 Hz (±3 dB)
Frequency Response  (when using the computer B.E.S.T. TUNING SYSTEM)
AT -20 vu Recording:
Metal Tape :  40 - 12,500 Hz (±1 dB)
SA/Chrome Tape :  40 - 12,500 Hz (±1 dB)
SF/Normal Tape :  40 - 12,500 Hz (±1 dB)
Those values are almost the same for all types of tapes when the computer B.E.S.T. tuning system is used.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
ANRS - OFF :  60 dB (weighted, 1 kHz, 3% THD, Metal tape)
ANRS- ON :  Improved by 5 dB at 1 kHz and 10 dB at 5 kHz and over
Effects of Super ANRS (Normal Tape)
Improvement of S/N Ratio :  The same as with ANRS
Improvement of Frequency Response [0 VU / +5 VU Recording]:  6 dB at 10 kHz / 12 dB at 10 kHz
Improvement of Distortion [0 VU / +5 VU Recording]:  3% or less at 10 kHz / 3% or less at 10 kHz
Channel Separation:  35 dB (1 kHz)
Crosstalk:  65 dB (1 kHz)
Wow and Flutter:  0,035% (WRMS);  0,12% (DIN 45 500)
Harmonic Distortion:  K3 : 0,4%;  THD : 1,0% (Metal tape , 1 kHz)
Fast Forward Time:  85 sec. Or less (with C-60 cassette)
Rewind Time:  85 sec. Or less (with C-60 cassette)
Bias Frequency:  85 kHz
Input Jacks:
Microphone Jack x 2
Max Sensitivity/ Matching Impedance :  0,2 mV (-72 dBs)/600 Ω - 10 k Ω
Line In Jack x 2
Min. Input level/ Impedance :  78 mV (-20 dBs)/100 k Ω
Output jacks
Line Out Jack x 2
Output level/Impedance :  0 - 300 mV/3,7 k Ω
Phones Jack x 1
Output level/Impedance :  0 - 0,5 mW/8 Ω - 1 k Ω
Semiconductors:  91 Transistors;  4 FETs; 53 ICs; 23 LEDs; 97 Diodes (11 Zener Diodes); 1 Hall element
Power Requirement:  AC 100/120/220/240 V, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  40 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  450 x 124 x 390 mm (17-3/4 x 4-7/8 x 15-3/8 inches)

Weight:  11 kg (24,2 lbs)

Kenwood KR-4070

 Kenwood KR-4070 Stereo Receiver
This is a unique solution to the Power-vs.-Price dilemma. A no-nonsense, high performance receiver at an unbelievably low price.
 KR-4070 Included Features
40 watts per channel, Min. RMS both channels driven at 8 ohms.
Full complementary symmetry differential main amplifier circuit for high stability.
3-gang tuning capacitor and FET front end for high sensitivity with low distortion
4-element linear phase IF filter for high selectivity
PLl in FM Multiplex for improved stereo separation
FM Auto Muting
Connections for 2-pairs of speakers
Natural low-boost only loudness control
Tape monitor
Optonial CB-7K walnut veneer cabinet, B-7 walnut veneer side panels, or D-7 carrying handles available.
Min. RMS Power Output:  40 watts per channel (at 8 Ω, 20-20,000 Hz)
Total Harmonic Distortion:  no more than 0,05%
IM Distortion (at reted power):  0,05%
Damping Factor (at 8 Ω):  40
Imput Sensitivity:
Phono : 5,0 mV/ 190 mV
Aux, Tape : 150 mV
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
Phono : 79 dB
Aux, Tape : 95 dB
FM Tuner Section
Sensitivity at 30 dB Quieting:  1,9µV  (10,8 dBf)
Sensitivity at 50 dB Quieting
Mono : 3,1µV (15,0 dBf)
Stereo : 40µV (37,2 dBf)
Max. Quieting
Mono : 72 dB
Stereo : 67 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion
Mono : 0,15%
Stereo : 0,25%
Capture Ratio:  1,0 dB
Alternate Channel Selectivity:  60 dB
Stereo Separation:  43 dB at 1 kHz; (35 dB at 50 - 10 kHz)
Inputs and Outputs:  Phono, Aux, Tape and 2 Speakers, Phones
Dimensions (W x H x D):  18-1/2 x 5-7/8 x 15-1/2 inch

Weight:  20,7 lbs