What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

McIntosh C-22

 The Mclntosh C22 Stereophonic Preamplifier is a control center for any stereophonic sound system. To increase your enjoyment of stereo, this control center does four jobs with precise control.
First, the control center amplifies weak electrical impulses. As the record rotates on the turntable, undulations in the grooves move the pickup stylus approximately one thousandth of an inch, in any direction, from the rest position. From this slight mechanical movement, the pickup stylus generates a weak electrical impulse on the order of a few thousandths of a volt. To amplify and preserve the information in such an electrical impulse, the finest amplifier performance is required.
 Second, every sound system is used in a different acoustical environment. The tone balance of the music is affected by variations in environment. Also, people listening to the music have varying ideas of correct tone balance. To compensate for these conditions, a high-quality tone control center is needed. Third, all stereophonic and monophonic records, both domestic and foreign, are recorded with specific frequency equalization. The control center must accurately compensate for this equalization introduced in the recording process.
Fourth, programs can originate from several sources such as tuners, records, tape machines, microphones, etc. A control center is needed to select and switch these sources separately or in combination.
All of these jobs are performed with  Excellence by the C22.
 The C22 also uses the new, exclusive Mclntosh PANLOC method of installation.
The PANLOC system gives you absolute ease of installation, operation, and maintenance.
PANLOC is the first professional installation technique to be used on stereo instruments. In the PANLOC system a metal shelf is mounted first, then the preamplifier slides into position on this shelf. Depressing the PANLOC buttons on the front panel locks the preamplifier firmly into place for normal operation. To unlock the preamplifier, depress the front panel PANLOC buttons a second time. The preamplifier can now slide forward to the ADJUST position. The preamplifier will lock in this position approximately 3 inches from the mounting panel.
Now you can adjust the output level controls, low frequency trim controls, tape equalization controls, phase switch and pilot lamp intensity switch. These controls are mounted just behind the C22 front panel. Depressing the ADJUST position holding latches on the sides of the chassis allows the preamplifier to be taken out of the PANLOC shelf, or toslide back into position against the mounting panel.
Once you have enjoyed the outstanding performance of the C22, you will understandwhy Mclntosh products have earned their reputation as "THE BEST." Your Mclntosh C22 Stereophonic control preamplifier will give you years of the finest possible performance, and will become a highly valued part of your home music system.
The C22 Stereophonic Preamplifier combines excellence in performance with ease of operation. The most often used controls have large diameter knobs. A new type of rocker switch is used for the controls with simple on-off functions. The C22 has an illuminated front panel with a light intensity switch to provide convenient reading under low-level lighting conditions. The Mode and Input Selector switch positions are also illuminated.
The C22 circuit consists of 3 amplifier sections in duplicate for the left and right stereo channels together with a common power supply.
The first amplifier section is the input preamplifier used to amplify and equalize signals from phonograph pickups, microphones or tape heads. Skillful circuit layout, proper grounding, and adequate shielding reduce the hum so low it is virtually unmeasurable. Extreme care in manufacturing combined with low noise tubes, high specific resistivity circuit boards, metal film and wire wound resistors achieves new low in residual noise.
 The second amplifier section follows the main volume control, making it impossible to overload the high level input circuits or any following circuits. The same design techniques as used in the preamplifier section assure low noise and hum. The BASS and TREBLE feedback-type tone controls operate in connection with this amplifier section. The controls are switch-type with approximately 4 db change per step. Exceedingly low distortion and precise control of frequency response contours are assured using this arrangement. Front panel tape jacks are provided for convenient use of an external tape machine. The TAPE JACK switch connects the jacks for either playback or recording through the C22.
The third section is the cathode follower output. The sharp cutoff (18 db per octave) RUMBLE and HF (high frequency) filters are associated with this section. OUTPUT LEVEL controls are located at the inputs of the cathode followers to allow simple balance of the entire amplifier-speaker system. The OUTPUT LEVEL controls are located on top of the C22, behind the front panel. These controls are conveniently accessible by releasing the PANLOC buttons and sliding the C22 out to the adjust position.
The power supply deserves special mention.
The power transformer is constructed with "core" type grain oriented laminations and magnetic shielding for low external humfields. Long life rectifiers with full wave rectification, filter condenser sectionalizing and careful grounding add to the hum-free long life characteristics of the C22. Special attention has been given to the mechanical design. The PANLOC system is the first professional installation technique to be used on stereo instruments. The PANLOC system gives you absolute ease of installation, operation and maintenance. The C22 may be conveniently installed in furniture cabinets, custom-built installations, professional relay racks or an attractive finished Mclntosh cabinet.
Input Sensitivity and Impedance:
Auxiliary, Tape, Tuner 1, and Tuner 2: 0.25 volts, 250,000 Ω
Phono 1 and Phono 2: 2 millivolts, 47,000 Ω
Microphone: 2.5 millivolts, 1 megohm.
Tape Head: 2 millivolts, 1 megohm.
Tape Compare: 0.25 volts, 250,000 Ω
Frequency Response:  ±0.5 dB from 20 cps to 20,000 cps.
Less than 0.2% at 10 volts output.
Less than .02% at 3 volts output.
Total Noise:
High Level Inputs: 85 db below rated output.
Low Level Inputs: Less than 1.5 microvolts at input terminals.
Main Output:  2.5 volts with rated input.
Tape Output:  .25 volts with rated input.
Left Plus Right Output:  1 volt from generator impedance of 25,000 Ω
Voltage Amplification:
Auxiliary, Tape, Tuner 1, and Tuner 2:
To Main Output :  20 dB  (10 to 1).
To Tape Output :  0 dB  (1 to 1).
Phono 1 and Phono 2 (At 1 KC):
To Main Output :  62 dB  (1250 to 1).
To Tape Output :  42 dB  (125 to 1).
To Main Output :  60 dB  (1000 to 1).
To Tape Output :  40 dB  (100 to 1).
Tape Head (At 500 cps):
To Main Output :  62 dB  (1250 to 1).
To Tape Output :  42 dB (125 to 1).
Tape Jack Switch:  2 position, connects panel jacks to allow signals to be fed from or to the C22 to record or playback using an external portable tape recorder.
Bass Controls:  Separate channel 11 position switch type, ±20 dB at 20 cycles.
Treble Controls:  Separate channel 11 position switch type, ± 20 dB  at 20,000 cycles.
Compensator Switch:  RIAA or LP record equalization.
Tape Switch:  Normal, or Tape Monitor.
Rumble Filter:  50 cps cutoff.
HF Filter:  5000 cycle cutoff.
Tubes:  6 each 12AX7.
Additional Set-Up Controls:
The following controls are located behind the front panel on the top of the C22 chassis.
These controls are readily accessible by depressing the PANLOC buttons to slide the C22 forward from the mounting panel:
Output Level Controls (L, L + R, and R):  Allows the balance of the entire system to be conveniently adjusted.
Low Frequency Trim Controls (L and R):  Allows frequencies below 100 cps to be boosted up to 6 db to compensate for unequal speaker response.
Tape Equalization Controls (L and R):  Adjusts tape head input high frequency response.
Phase Switch:  2 position, normal (0°) or reverse (180°).
Pilot Lamp Intensity Switch:  2 position, bright or dim.
A.C. Outlets:
1 x unswitched (Red) for turntable or tape machine.
4 x switched.
Power Requirement:  117 volts 50/60 cps AC, 34 watts.
Front panel:  16 inches wide by 57/16 inches high;
Chassis (including PANLOC shelf):  15 inches wide by 5 inches high by 13 inches deep, including connectors; clearance in front of mounting panel including knobs, 1½ inches.
Weight:  16 pounds net, 25 pounds in shipping carton.

Finish:  Anodized gold and black (front panel).

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