What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

Kenwood KR-5010 receiver

Kenwood KR-5010 in an AM/FM stereo receiver FTC rated for 8 ohms at 45 watts RMS oer channel, from 20 Hz to 20 kHz , at no more than 0,03% Total Harmonic Distortion
Features include a stereo beacon, combination FM center-channel and AM signal strength tuning meter, left and right output power meters calibrated from 0,01 to 100 watts into 8 ohms and -40 dB to +3 dB with 0 dB representing 50 watts, wide and narrow FM IF bandwidth selector, an Fless than mute automatically applied in the auto stereo mode 9mute is always off in the mono mode), and an output hold-off that prevents power supply turn-on transients from being fed to the speakers.
There are inputs for magnetic phono and two tape. Outputs for two speaker systems, two tape, and phones.
Controls are provided for tuning, volume, balance, ganged bass, ganged treble, input selection, and speaker selection. There are switches for loudness compensation, hi-filter, tape monitor A, and tape monitor B.
The FM antenna inputs is 75 Ω/300 Ω. A rod antenna and external connection are provided for Am. Switched and unswitched AC outlets are provided.

FM Tuner - full limiting was attained with 1,6 µV. The monophonic high fidelity sensitivity (60 dB quieting) measured 7 µV. The stereo high fidelity sensitivity (55 dB quieting) was 55 µV. Full mute release was attained with 1,6 µV
At standard test level the stereo frequency response measured +0,1 dB / -1,5 dB from 30 to 15,000 Hz. With the receiver set for wide selectivity the distortion measured 0,15% T.H.D. for mono 0,6% T.H.D. for stereo. With narrow selectivity the distortion measured 0,11%  T.H.D. for mono, and 0,4% T.H.D. for stereo. The signal to noise ratio was 69 dB. Stereo separation measured 40 dB. Selectivity was fair (wide) to very good (narrow)
AM Tuner - distortion was a little higher than average
Amplifier - the power output at the clipping level with both channels driven 20 to 20,000 Hz into 8 Ω measured 43 watts RMS per channel. The Frequency Response at 43 watts/8 Ω was +0 dB/-0,2 dB from 20 to 20,000 Hz at a distortion no higher than 0,035% T.H.D. at any frequency
The tone control range measured +11 dB / -9 dB  at 50 Hzl +9 dB/-8 dB at 10,000 Hz
The magnetic input hum and noise measured -62 dB; stereo separation was into the noise level.
Within the power capabilities of the amplifier the power meters were within 10% accuracy at their calibrated values. Frequency Response was essentially "flat" from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz

Overal dimensions (W x H x D): 18-1/2" x 5-1/2" x 14-1/8"
Weight :  19 lbs

Hitachi SR-4010 receiver

Hitachi SR-4019 AM/FM stereo receiver FTC rated for 8 ohms at 25 watts RMS per channel, 20 Hz to 20 kHz , at no more than 0,05% Total Harmonic Distortion
Features include:
Left and right 5 step LED output power indicators, calinrated at 0,01; 0,1; 1; 10 and 30 watts into 8 ohms, that also serve as an FM tuning indicator (left meter) and AM/FM signal strength meter (right meter); an FM stereo beacon; an FM mute that is applied automatically when the receiver is in the stereo mode (the mute is off when the receiver is set for full time mono); and a subsonic filtter that is applied automatically when the LED indicators are switched to the tuning indicator mode (the subsonic filter is off when the meters are switched to indicate output power)
There are inputs for magnetic phono, and tape Outputs for two speaker systems, tape and [phones. Controls are provided for tuning volume, balance, ganged bass, ganged treble, speaker selection, and input selection/FM muting. There are switched for loudness compensation, tape monitor, and meter mode/subsonic filter.
The FM antenna input is 75/300 ohms. An internal antenna and external connection are provided for AM. There is one unswitched AC outlet.
Tuner performance
FM Tuner. Full limiting was attained with 2,8 µV. The monophonic high fidelity sensitivity (60 dB quieting) measured 8 µV. The stereo high fidelity sensitivity (55 dB quieting) was 90 µV. Full mute release was attained with 6 µV. At standard test level the stereo frequency response measured +0,2/-1,5 dB from 40 to 15,000 Hz, down 2,2 dB at 30 Hz . Monophonic distortion measured 0,2% Total Harmonic Distortion, stereo distortion was 0,5% Total Harmonic Distortion. The signal to noise ratio measured 67 dB. Stereo separation was 36 dB. Selectivity was very good. The 19 kHz FM pilot leakthrough is some what higher than average. Make certain the MPX filter on a Dolby recorder is switched in when recording from FM. On most recorders the MPX filter is automatically applied with the Dolby.
AM tuner. Background noise was higher than average.
Amplifier peformance. The power output per channel at the clipping level with both chaannels driven 20 to 20,000 Hz into 8 ohms measured 27 watts RMS. The frequency response at 27 watts/8 ohms measured +0 dB -3 dB from 20 to 20,000 Hz at a distortion no higher than 0,06% Total Harmonic Distortion at any frequency. The subsonic filter produced 2,5 dB attenuation at 20 Hz. The tone control range measured =11/-12 dB at 50 Hz ; ±8 dB at 10,000 Hz. The magnetic input hum and noise was -69 dB; stero separation was into the noise level.
The LED output power indicators, because of the broad range between values, indicate approximate power. They serve as a reference rather than as precise value. Their frequency response is essentially "flat". When used as tuning meters the right indicator functions as light-bar )or bar-graph) signal strength meter, while the center LED in the left indicator serves to indicate proper tuning-it snaps on when an FM station is tuned properly; essentially, the LED substitutes for a center-channel tuning meter.

Dimensions (W x H x D):  17-1/8" x 4-3/8" x 11-1/8"

Boston A200 loudspeakers

The A200 is a high performance three-way loudspeaker system designed for optimum reproduction of music under actual home listening condition. Its design takes particular advantage of recent research about the colorations which can be caused by off-axis sound radiation when it reflects off parts of the speaker, is diffracted at cabinet edges, and is strongly reflected off floor and wall surfaces near the speaker.
These reflections have been controlled in the A200 by the shape of the cabinet and careful attention to the placement of the drivers, yielding a speaker system which exhibits a remarkably uniform and accurate tonal balance, exceptionally good stereo imaging, and relatively high efficiency.
The 10" woofer is mounted near the floor and the shallow cabinet permits convenient placement near a wall behind it. Consequently the woofer behaves acoustically as if it were flush-mounted at the floor-wall intersection, radiating uniformly into the 90-degree solid angle formed by that intersection with all reflections remaining in-phase with the woofer's direct output, preserving its smooth response and raising its efficiency.
The 4-1/2" midrange and 1" soft dome tweeter are positioned near  ear level for realistic musical imaging. They are flush-mounted in an unusually large and smooth front-panel area, so that the nearest cabinet edge or reflecting object is more than a half-wavelength away at any frequency in their operating range.  Consequently the drivers radiate essentially a hemispheric wave front, and the control of early reflections permits their smooth response to be heard to full advantage.

The infinite plane enclosure
The A200's enclosure design isn't a cosmetic "sales feature". It is calculated specifically to restrict the amount of sound than can reach the rear wall and floor, especially at the crucial midrange frequencies that determine a speaker's tonal character and imaging capability.
The A200's unusually large and smooth front panel makes the midrange and high frequency drivers behave as if they are mounted into an infinitely large plane extending beyond the baffle. As a result, they acoustically "see" only the hemispheric space in front of the cabinet, eliminating the early reflections that can color their sound and blur the stereo imaging.
Dealing with bass frequencies and their very long wavelengths required a different solution. By mounting the woofer close to the floor, floor reflections remain in phase, reinforcing the woofer's output and preserving its smooth response.
Another benefit of the A200's tall, slim cabinet is the opportunity to mount the midrange and tweeter near ear level to enhance the sonic perspective. Mid and high frequency information emanates at the proper height in space, eliminating the "highs-at-knee-level" phenomenon of typical cabinet shapes.

Low-frequencies  :  10" (250 mm) acoustic suspension woofer
Mid-frequencies :  4-1/2" (120 mm) midrange with ferrofluid
High-frequencies ;  1" (25 mm) soft dome tweeter with ferrofluid
Crossover Frequencies:  450 Hz and 3000 Hz
Sensitivity:  1 watt produces 90 dB at 1 meter
Impedance:  8 Ω nominal
Low Frequency Response "  -3 dB at 36 Hz
Driver Fuses:
Tweeter :  1,5 A
Midrange :  2 A
Dimensions (H x W x D):  1040 x 530 x 160 mm (41" x 21" x 6-3/8")
Weight:  27 kg (58 lbs)

Boston A150 loudspeakers

The new model A150 offers performance similar to our larger, more expensive A200 in a more compact, less expensive enclosure.
The three-way A150 employs a 10-inch acoustic suspension woofer, a 4-1/2" midrange with ferrofluid, and a 1-inch soft dome tweeter with ferrofluid in a 30-1/2" (high) x 16-1/2" (wide) x 8" (deep) cabinet finished in furniture-grade oak veneer.
A 1-1/2-inch black pedestal base is supplied for floor placement.
The tall, slim cabinet together with careful driver placement minimize out of phase reflections from nearby room surfaces (the flor and the wall behind the speaker) for exceptionally smooth response and precise stereo imaging.

Frequency Response:  36 Hz - 25,000 Hz ±3 dB
Crossover Frequencies:  550 Hz and 3000 Hz
Impedance:  8 Ω nominal
Sensitivity:  90 dB at 1 meter with 1 watt input
Dimensions (W x W x D):  32" x 16-1/2" x 8"

NAD 5325 compact disc player

Decoding: 16-bit linear two channels
Frequency Response (Nominal):  8 Hz - 20,000 Hz +0,2 dB -2,0 dB
Deemphasis Error:  +0,5 dB -1,0 dB
Out[ut Level at 0 dB:  2 Volts ±0,7 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion (W/20 kHz L.P.F. at 1 kHz, 0 dB):  0,04% (Nominal); 0,07% (Limit)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (2W/20 kHz L.P.F)):  96 dB (Nominal); 90 dB (Limit)
Channel Separation:  80 dB (Nominal); 70 dB (Limit)
Channel Balance (at 1 kHz, 0 dB):  0,1 dB (Nominal); 1,0 dB (Limit)
Wow and Flutter:  Unmeasurable (Quartz crystal accuracy)
Remote Control :  Yes
Power Requirements: 110 V, 220 V, 240 V AC 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:   14 W (0,11A )
Dimensions (W x H x D):  420 x  87 x 231 mm (16,54" x 3,43" x 9,09")
Weight:  3 kg (6,6 lb)

NAD 6325 cassette deck

NAD Cassette Deck model 6325 features
Dolby B and C
CAR Circuit Optimizes Recording for Mobile Environment
Play Trim
Full Logic Transport

Speed Accuracy:  +1%
Wow and Flutter: 
less than 0,06% (JIS wtd RMS)
less than 0,1% (DIN wtd. Peak)
Frequency Response:  35 Hz - 16 kHz +3 dB (Dolby NR Off)
Harmonic Distortion:  varies with recording level typically less than 0,3% at -10 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion at 0 dB:
Normal Tape :  less than 1,0 %
CrO₂, Metal Tape :  less than 1,5%
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (ref.3% T.H.D. at 333 Hz CC1R/ARM weighting):
Dolby off :  56 dB
Dolby B :  66 dB
Dolby C :  76 dB
Channel Separation:  40 dB at 1 kHz (35 dB broadband)
Erasure:  better than 70 dB at 1 kHz
Input Sensitivity /Impedance:  40 mV/10 k Ω
Maximum Input level:  25 V
Output Level at 0 dB:  500 mV
Output Impedance:  1000 Ω
Power Requirement:  120, 220, 240 V AC 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  23W at 120 V AC
Dimensions (W x H x D):  420 x 122 x 270 mm (16,5" x 4,8" x 10,6")
Weight (net):  4,4 kg (9 lb 13 oz)

Mitsubishi DT-10 cassette tape deck

Advanced Features and Superior Performance
The DT-10 offers both excellent basic performance and great ease in use combined with the attractive lines of the whole Mitsubishi Audio Component line0up. Ultralow wow and flutter - only 0,06% WRMS; are ensured by the use of a DC servomotor with large (2-7/8") flywheel, a capstan circular to within a 0,3 µ tolerance, and a high precision drive assembly.
Special circuitry and selected components help to realize the full advantages of Dolby noise reduction. Mitsubishi's own ultralow-noise PNP-type epitaxial transistors are used in the first stage of the recording equalizer amplifier.

Residual tape meter
The DT-10 has a special meter to tell you how much time is left before the tape will end. Often useful during playback, it is an invaluable aid to high quality home recording.

Recording Master Volume Control and Mixing Facilities
Like the DT-30 , the DT-10 has separate level controls for Mic and Line inputs, so that both can be mixed, and a master recording level control for professional-type fade-in and fade-out effects.

Other Features and Functions
Dolby noise-reduction system
Peak-level indicator plus VU meters
Memory rewind function to (000) on the counter.
Timer-controlled recording and playback possible
l-channel Mic input doubles as input for a mono Mic
Output  level control
Two position adjustment of both equalization and bias
Oil-damped gentle cassette-ejection mechanism.

Tape Speed:  4,75 cm/sec (1-7/8 ips) ±1%
Wow and Flutter:  0,06% WRMS
Fast Forward/Rewind:  80 sec (C-60 tape)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (+3 VU, weighted, 400 Hz)
Dolby Out :  56 dB
Dolby In :  64 dB
Erasure Ratio (1 kHz):  70 dB
Between Channels (500 - 6,300 Hz) :  35 dB
Between Tracks (1 kHz) :  65 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion (400 Hz):  1%
Frequency Response:
Normal Tape :  40 - 12,000 Hz ±3 dB
Special Tape :  40 - 15,000 Hz ±3 dB
Mic Input :  0,24 mV
Line Input :  80 mV
Bias Frequency:  85 kHz
Dimensions (W x H x D):  425 x 170 x 379 mm (16-3/4" x 6-3/4" x 14-7/8")
Weight:  9,5 kg (21 lbs)

Mitsubishi DT-30 cassette deck

If you are an audio enginneer, you'll get the most out of the new Mitsubishi Dt-30 in a day or two. You get dynamics, fidelity, color and subtlety like you never dreamed of. If, however, you are merely a gifted amateur, it will take longer. Because the DT-30 is somewhat like a race horse. It runs best under a great jockey. It is more sophisticated, more complex, and more challenging than systems costing twice as much. It has, for example, recording head azimuth adjustment, so you can fine tune for optimum performance with any cassette. It has internal standard oscillators, so you can make acurate and minute bias adjustments.
It has a 3-head structure, so that you can monitor what you're recording while you're recording. Although a professional would be accustomed to this level of instrumentation, you may not be.
Just remember this. The DT-30 is only a machine. With time and care and devotion, you can master it. And produce tapes that are as good as any in the world. Consider the features you have on your side.
A dual-capstan transport system that's guaranteed to reduce Wow and Flutter by 30% or more. An automatic spacing-pauser that adds a short blank space between each segment you are recording.
A peak-hold switch that freezes the dB indicaator at its highest level, long enough for you to make adjustments.
We proudly introduce our potent, eager, demanding, sensitive, beautiful DT-30 cassette deck.

1 x PLL Servo DC motor
1 x DC Governed motor
Magnetic Heads
Record :  Ferrite head
Playback :  Sendust head
Erase :  ferrite 
Noise Reduction System:  Dolby NR
Tracks: 4-track, 2-channel
Tape Speed:  4,75 cm/sec
Recording System:  AC bias (85 kHz)
Erasing System:  AC erasing (85 kHz)
Playback Equalization
Normal :  3,180 µsec/120 µsec
FeCr and Special :  3,180 µsec/70 µsec
Input Level/Impedance
Mic :  0,3 mV/1,2 k Ω
Line :  100 mV/ 82 k Ω
Output Level/Impedance
Line :  0,44/22 k Ω
Headphones :  90 mV/8 Ω
Wow and Flutter:  0,045% WRMS (±0,09% DIN Wp-p)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
Dolby NR out (weighted) :  58 dB RMS
Dolby NR In (weighted) :  66 dB RMS
DIN (weighted) Dolby NR Out :  52 dB
Frequency Response:
Normal :  30 - 17,000 Hz (40 - 15,000 Hz ±3 dB)
FeCr :  30 - 20,000 Hz ( 40 - 18,000 Hz ±3 dB)
Special :  30 - 18,000 Hz (40 - 17,000 Hz ±3 dB)
Total Harmonic Distortion (at 400 Hz, 160 pWb/mm):  1,0 %
At 1 kHz, between Channels :  35 dB
At 1 kHz, between Tracks :  65 dB
Power Requirements: 110 V Ac, 220 -240 V AC  50/60 Hz
Power Consumption: 28 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  425 x 170 x 379 mm (16-3/4" x 6-3/4" x 14-7/8")
Weight:  10,5 kg (23 lbs)

Bose Model 601 loudspeakers

A New Direct/Reflecting Speaker of Outstanding performance, High Efficiency, Moderate Cost and Exceptional Versatility
The Model 601 is a totally new Direct/Reflecting loudspeaker fromBose. It employs a unique arrangement of six drivers in each enclosure (four tweeter, two woofers) to achieve a level of tonal accuracy and spatial realism comparable only to the world renownedBose 901 Series III.
These peformance qualities , along with high efficiency, moderate cost, and great versatility of speaker placement in practically any listening environment, make the Model 601 a loudspeaker of exceptional value.
The result is an open, spacious sound and feeling of realism which can not be achieved by conventional speakers with front mounted drivers beaming directly at the listener. Such conventional designs are aimed almost exclusively at producing accurate frequency response, while largely ignoring the spatial qualities so critical to the impact of a live performance. In the Model 601, these important spatial qualities are accurately reproduced through the careful positioning and orientation of all six drivers in each speaker enclosure.

The Concept Behind Bose Direct/Reflecting Speakers
Like the 901 Series III 9the most advanced development of Bose design concepts and state-of-the-art. Manufacturing techniques), the Model 601 is a Direct/Reflecting speaker system . It's designed to reflect the greater part of its sound output off the back and side walls of the room, surrounding the listener with the same kind of balance of reflected and direct sound experienced in a live performance.

The tweeters
Three tweters in each enclosure provide reflected sound, creating a feeling of spaciousness, while one tweeter radiates the smaller proportion of direct sound needed for a strong center image and crisp, sharply defined details.
Two of the tweeters are also positioned to radiate sound upward through the acoustically transparent top grille, thus avoiding interference from furniture in the room.
The Woofers
There are two 8-inch woofers in each Model 601 enclosure, one aimed forward and one angled upward, to contribute an important component of reflected sound. The use of two smaller woofers provides a cone area equal to that of a single much larger driver, while offering importantperformance benefits at low and middle frequencies.
Each high-output woofer is capable of better dispersion and smoother midrange performance than a larger woofer, while they work together to provide bass response of exceptional power and clarity.

Accuracy of Tonal balance
With all four tweeters covering the same upper frequency range and the two woofers covering the same lower range, small response irregularities of individual drivers are averaged and smoothed in a way that can not be duplicated using single drivers.

The Model 601 is also a highly efficient speaker that can deliver superior reproduction of all kinds of music using an amplifier or receiver having as little as 20 watts of power per channel

Technical Information
Spatial Charateristics
Asymetric design for optimum stereo reproduction utilizing rear and side wall reflections. Two woofers, one reflecting, one direct. Four tweeters angled toward the rear walls, side walls, and listening area. Two-Position Symmetry Control; Asymmetric - side directed tweeters receive greater high-frquency excitation than center-directed tweeters; Symmetric - for speaker placement without adjacent reflecting walls, all tweeters are equally excited. Designed in mirror-image pairs for stereo reproduction.
Speaker Configuration
Woofer :  two eight-inch, high-efficiency woofers utilizing long-throw, one-inch voice coils. Linear high-excursion suspension systems providing high output capability
Tweeter :  Four trhee-inch, high-sensitivity, wide-range tweeters
Enclosure :  A walnut veneer floor-standing loudspeaker with ported design and acoustically transparent top
Minimum Recommended Power:  15 watss RMS per channel at 8 Ω
Amplifier rated over 70 watts per channel are unnecessary for "live volume" reproduction.
Amplifiers over 50 watts per channel should be fused
Crossover Frequency:  2 kHz
Impedance:  8 Ω
Dimensions (W x H x D):  15" x 25,5" x 13"
Weight:  36 lbs

Bose Model 550 receiver

The new, moderately prieced Bose Model 550 AM/FM Stereo Receiver brings you Bose technology and research wrapped up in an affordable, innovative package. It includes a direct-coupled amplifier that delivers a solid 40 watts of RMS power per channel - enough to drive almost any loudspeaker. It has an excellent AM/FM tuner section for clean reception. And exclusive Bose Source and Room Compensation Controls let you adjust for recording characteristics and for room acoustics. These controls make it easy for you to remove mid-range boominess without losing your deep bass. Try that with a conventional receiver.
The Bose 550 Receiver is designed to drive any speakers that suit your taste and budget. And it contains a unique feature you'll really appreciate when you upgrade your system. More and more customers tell us their first loudspeakers are interim units and that one day they hope to invest in a Bose 901 Series Direct/Reflecting Loudspeakers System.
Ownwrship of the 550 Receiver brings that day much closer, because the receiver has a built-in 901 Active Equalizer that gives you a significant savings when you purchase 901 speakers.

Power Output:  40 watts per channel (minimum RMS continuous power, with both channels driven into 8 ohms, T.H.D. less than 0,3% from 20 Hz to 20 kHz)
IHF power Bandwidth:  20 Hz - 20 kHz (both channel driven, T.H.D. less than 0,19%)
Intermodulation Distortion:  0,09% IHF (60 Hz /7 khzmixed 4:1 at rated output)
Total Harmonic Distortion:  0,09% from 0,5 to 40 watts
Frequency Response:  20 Hz - 20,000 Hz ±0,5 dB
Phono RIAA:  ±0,5 dB
Input Sensitivity/Impedance:
Phono :  2,75 mV/47 k Ω
Auxx, Tape :  150 mV/50 k Ω
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
Phono :  76 dB (A weighted, below rated output, inputs shorted)
Amplifier:  87 dB (A weighted, below rated output, inputs shorted);  91  dB (A weighted, below rated output, min. Volume)
Channel Separation: 
Aux, Tape:  60 dB at 1 kHz
Phono :  55 dB at 1 kHz
Phono Overload:  100 mV
Loudness Control : 
8 dB at 100 Hz ±2 dB
6 dB at 12 kHz ±2 dB
Source Room Compensation Controls:
Low Filter:
-3 dB at 100 Hz
-7 dB at 20 Hz
Low Frequency Control
Narrow Position
±8 dB at 140 Hz (center frequency)
±1 dB at 20 Hz and 1 kHz
Wide Position
±3 dB at 350 Hz
±8 dB at 50 Hz
High Frequency Control
±8 dB at 15 kHz
±3 dB at 2,2 kHz
FM Tuner
IHF Usable Sensitivity: 
Mono :  2,0 µV (11,25 dBf)
Stereo :  3,5 µV (16,11 dBf)
50 dB Quieting Sensitivity: 
Mono :  3,8 µV (16,82 dBf)
Stereo :  40 µV (37,27 dBf)
Frequency Response:  30 Hz - 15 kHz  +1, -3 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (65 dBf):
Mono :  65 dB
Stereo :  60 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion (65 dBf):
Mono :  0,25%
Stereo : 0,50%
Capture ratio:  1,9 dB
Alternate Channel Selectivity:  60 dB
Spurious Response Rejection:  80 dB
Image Rejection:  65 dB
AM Rejection:  50 dB
Stereo Separation (1 kHz):  40 dB
AM Tuner
20 dB Usable Sensitivity:  350 µV/M w /ferrite loopstick
Adjacent Channel Selectivity:  35 dB
Distortion:  0,9% 9400 Hz at 30% modulation)
Image Rejection:  37 dB
IF Rejection:  45 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  40 dB
Power Requirements:  120 Volts AC, 60 Hz or 240 Volts AC, 50 Hz
Power Consumption: 360 watts at rated power
AC Outlets:  1 x Switched, 1 x Unswitched ( 400 watt max)
Dimensions (W x H x D):  464 x 146 x 311 mm
Weight:  7 kg (15,5 lbs)

Dual CS-510 turntable

The new Dual model 510 meets the need of that special breed of audiophile who prefers to handle the tonearm himself. At the same time, the 510 tonearm provides important automatic features that we believe even the most sure-handed music lover will appreciate.
When the tonearm is raised from its resting post and moved toward the record, there's no need to guess when it is precisely over the lead-in groove; a mechanical sensor lets you know for both 12" and 7" records. The tonearm then will not descend until the cue-control lever is actuated. You don't even have to remember to set the cue-control in the up position (it automatically resets at the end of play)
All this is achieved by the 510's unique indexing indicator which is interlocked with the cue-control. However, if you don't want this help, you can simply switch the system off.
There are two other touches of automation. Moving the tonearm toward the record turns on the drive system. At the end of play, the tonearm lifts and the motor shuts off.
In all other respects, the 510 is essentially the same as other full-sized Dual models.
The tonearm is mounted in a newly designed four-point gimbal suspension. It is vernier-adjustable for precise balance; tracking pressure is calibrated in tenths of a gram for use with the most advanced cartridges; anti-skating is separately calibrated for conical, elliptical and CD-4 styli
The dynamically-balanced cast platter is linked to an 8-pole synchronous motor through a precision-ground belt. Pitch is variable over a 6% range (a semitone) and can be conveniently set to exact speed by means of a built-in illuminated strobe, read directly off the rim of the platter.
Features of Dual 510:
Tonearm pivots in both axes within four-point gimbal
The 510 tonearm pivots horizontally and vertically an identical sets of low-friction needle-point bearings. Each gimbal is hand-assembled, and special gauges assure that each will conform to Dual's stringent specificaations. For example, vertica; friction must measure no more than seven thousandths of a gram or that gimbal will not pass quality control
Stylus pressure applied around pivot maintans dynamic tonearm balance
A long flat spring coiled around the pivot applies constant stylus pressure throughout play. Only a small portion of the spring's length is used, thus maintaining accurate pressure from 0,25 gram up. Tonearm balance is maintained throughout play, and stylus pressure remains perpendicular to the record even if the turntable is tilted.
8-pole synchronous motor, precision-ground belt drive and dynamically-balanced platter.
The 510 belt-drive system features a specially developed 8-pole synchronous motor that achieves high starting torque and exceptionally smooth, vibration-free rotation.
The precision-ground belt serves three functions with ingenious simplicity; it acts as the speed reduction system; rotates the platter; and isolates it  from any residual motor vibration.
The full-size, 2-inch platter is a one-piece aluminum casting individually machined and then monitored for perfect balance using computer-controlled gauges.

Drive:  Dual eight pole synchronous motor via precision flat belt on turntable platter
Start-up Time:  2 s at 33/1-3 rpm (until nominal speed is reached)
Platter: non-magnetic, detachable,
Weight:  1,3 kg
Diameter:  300 mm
Platter Speeds:  3-1/3 and 45 rpm
Pitch Control Variation:  for 33-1/3 and 45 rpm records, adjustment range of approx. 1 semi-tone (approx. 6%) at both platter speeds
Speed Control:  with illuminated stroboscope for platter speed 33-1/3 rpm
Sensitivity of Stroboscopic Light for 0,1% Speed Variation:
3 locating marks/min at 50 Hz
3,6 locating marks/min at 60 Hz
Wow and Flutter:  less than ±0,08% (according to DIN 45 507)
Rumble (DIN 45 500)
Unweighted :  better than 42 dB
Weighted :  better than 63 dB
Tonearm:  Torsion- resistant tubular aluminium tonearm in four point gimbal
Effective Lenght of Tonearm:  222 mm
Offset Angle:  25° 20'
Tangential Tracking Error:  0,16°/cm
Tonearm Bearing Friction (related to stylus tip):
Vertical :  less than 0,07 mN (0,007 p)
Horizontal :  less than 0,16 mN (0,016 p)
Stylus pressure:
From 0 - 30 mN ( 0 - 3 g) infinitely variable with 1 mN ( 1/10 g) calibrations
From 0 - 15 mN (0 - 1,5 g) operable from 5 mN ( 0,5 g) stylus pressure up
Cartridge Holder:  Removable accepting any cartridge with 1/2" mounting and weight form 5,5 to 10 g (including mounting hardware)
Adjustable Overhang:  5 mm
Power Requirements:  110 - 130 V or 220 - 240 V (switchable), AC 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption: approx. 10 Watts
Dimensions (W x H x D):  420 x 148 x 365 mm
Weight:  4,3 kg

Kenwood KP-1022 turntable

A high-quality turntable Frequency Response the budget-minded audiophile
The KP-1022 features a low-mass, low-friction tone arm with adjustable anti-skating to maintain precise center-of-groove tracing for greater stereo separation and optimum tracking. A full-sized, 12-inch aluminum alloy die-cast platter is isolated from residual vibration by a belt-drive coupling between the synchronous motor shaft and the turntable. The result - accurate at all speeds rotation with unaudible wow and flutter (less than 0,07%, WRMS) and Signal-to-Noise ratio of better than 45 dB.
Add to the fine engineering the unit's handsome styling, and you have a stereo turntable you can well be pround to own, at a price that fits happily into your stereo budget.
Special Mechanism:
Variable speed pause
Anti-skating device
Stylus pressure direct-readout counter

Turntable Type:  2- speeds Belt-drive system
Motor;  4-pole Synchronous Motor
Speeds:  33-1/3 and 45 rpm
Wow and Flutter:  less than 0,07%
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: better than 47 dB
Platter:  300 mm (12-inch) aluminum alloy die-cast
Tonearm:  Static Balance type, S-shaped pipe arm
Tracking Error:  ±1,5 °
Stylus pressure Variable Range:  0 - 4 g
Usable Cartrudge Weight:  4 - 10 g
Type:  Moving Magnet (V-39 MkII)
Frequency Response:  20 - 20,000 Hz
Channel Separation:  better than 25 dB (1,000 Hz)
Output:  3 mV (1,000 Hz, 50 mm/sec)
Output Balance:  1,5 dB (1,000 Hz, 50 mm/sec)
Load Impedance:  50 k Ω
Stylus pressure:  2 ±0,25 grams
Stylus:  0,5 mil diamond
Compliance:  7 x 10¯⁶ cm/dyne
Power Requirements:  120 V, 220- 240 V AC, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption: 11 watts
Dimensions (W x H x D):  446 x 175 x 354 mm (17-9/16" x 6-7/8" x 13-15/16")
Weight:  6 kg (13,2 lbs)