What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

BASSOCONTINUO Audio Systems - Accordeon

General description: 3 legs audio table.
Modular structure made of solid stainless steel.
Adjustable spikes with massive base disks. Innovative design.
Materials: Structure made of stainless steel AISI303 -
Shelves in MDF or multilayer wood or Plexiglas
No. of shelves: From 2 up to 4.
Thickness of the shelves: 25 mm / 1"
Height between shelves: From 95 mm (3” ¾) up to 350 mm (13” ¾)
Overall dimensions: 600 x 550 mm / 23” ½ x 21” ½ (W x D)
Useful size of each shelf (excluded top and side shelves): 500 x 500 mm / 20” x 20” (W x D)Useful size of the top shelf: 600 x 550 mm / 23” ½ x 20” (W x D)
Max loaded: 80 Kgs / 176 lbs. each shelf
Decoupling: By gum O-ring
General description: 3 legs audio table with side appendage.
Modular structure made of solid stainless steel.
Adjustable spikes with massive base disks. Innovative design.
Materials: Structure made of stainless steel AISI303.
Shelves in MDF or multilayer wood or Plexiglas.
No. of shelves: From 2 up to 4 and one side shelf.
Thickness of the shelves: 25 mm / 1"
Height between first and second shelf: 260 mm (10” ¼) or 305 mm (12”)
Height for the other shelves: from 95 mm (3” ¾) up to 350 mm (13” ¾)
Overall dimensions: variable – maximum 1270 x 1090 mm / 50” x 43” (W x D)
Useful size of each shelf (excluded top and side shelves): 500 x 500 mm / 20” x 20” (W x D)Useful size of the top shelf: 600 x 550 mm / 23” ½ x 20” (W x D)
Useful size of the side shelves: about 520 x 550 mm / 20” ½ x 20” (W x D)
Max loaded: 80 Kgs / 176 lbs. each shelf
Decoupling: By gum O-ring
General description: 3 legs audio table with double side appendage.
Modular structure made of solid stainless steel.
Adjustable spikes with
massive base disks. Innovative design.
Materials: Structure made of stainless steel AISI303.
Shelves in MDF or multilayer wood or Plexiglas.
No. of shelves: From 2 up to 4 and two side shelves.
Thickness of the shelves: 25 mm / 1"
Height between first and second shelf: 260 mm (10” ¼) or 305 mm (12”)
Height for the other shelves: from 95 mm (3” ¾) up to 350 mm (13” ¾)
Overall dimensions: variable – maximum 1940 x 1090 mm / 76” ½ x 43” (W x D)
Useful size of each shelf (excluded top and side shelves): 500 x 500 mm / 20” x 20” (W x D)Useful size of the top shelf: 600 x 550 mm / 23” ½ x 20” (W x D)
Useful size of the side shelves: about 520 x 550 mm / 20” ½ x 20” (W x D)
Max loaded: 80 Kgs / 176 lbs. each shelf
Decoupling: By gum O-ring

BASSOCONTINUO Audio Sytems - Apogeo

General description:
Adjustable massive stainless steel spikes.
Sandwich structure shelf.
Bases with interchangeable decoupling cylinder.
Materials: Structure made of 60 mm diameter solid stainless steel AISI303 - Shelf in M
N° of shelves: 4
Thickness of the shelf: from 25 mm up to 60 mm
Total height: 1000 mm
Useful size of the upper shelf: 700 x 680 mm (w x d)
Useful size of the inner shelves: 500 x 500 mm (w x d)
Useful size of the base shelf: 580 x 540 mm (w x d)
Overall dimensions: 770 x 750 mm (w x d)
Weight: 130 Kg

BASSOCONTINUO Audio Systems - Ghironda

General description: 5 legs audio/video table. Modular structure made of solid stainless steel. Adjustable spikes with massive base disks. Innovative design.Materials: Structure made of stainless steel AISI313. Shelves in MDF or multilayer wood or Plexiglas.No. of shelves: From 2 up to 4.Thickness of the shelves: 25 mm / 1”Height between shelves: From 95 mm (3” ¾) up to 350 mm (13” ¾)Overall dimensions: 1140 x 565 mm / 45” x 22” ¼ (W x D)Useful size: Two place 500 x 500 mm (20” x 20”) for each shelf (excluded top and side shelves)Useful size of the top shelf: 1140 x 565 mm / 45” x 22” ¼ (W x D)Max loaded: 140 Kgs each shelfDecoupling: By gum o-ringNote: Supplied in kit - ExpandableGHIRONDA A
General description: 5 legs audio/video table with side appendage. Modular structure made of solid stainless steel. Adjustable spikes with massive base disks. Innovative design.Materials: Structure made of stainless steel AISI313. Shelves in MDF or multilayer wood or Plexiglas.No. of shelves: From 2 up to 4 and one side shelf.Thickness of the shelves: 25 mm / 1”Height between shelves: 260 mm (10” ¼) or 305 mm (12”), between first and second shelf; from 95 mm (3” ¾) up to 350 mm (13” ¾) for the other shelvesTotal height of side shelf: 285 mm / 11” ¼Overall dimensions: variable – maximum 1810 x 1105 mm / 71” ¼ x 43” ½ (W x D)Useful size: Two place 500 x 500 mm (20” x 20”) for each shelf (excluded top and side shelves)Useful size of the top shelf: 1140 x 565 mm / 45” x 22” ¼ (W x D)Useful size of the side shelves: About 520 x 550 mm / 20” ½ x 20” (W x D)Max loaded: 140 Kgs each shelf - 80 Kgs for side shelfDecoupling: By gum o-ringNote: Supplied in kit. Expandable
General description: 5 legs audio/video table with top shelf. Modular structure made of solid stainless steel. Adjustable spikes with massive base disks. Innovative design.Materials: Structure made of stainless steel AISI313. Shelves in MDF or multilayer wood or Plexiglas.No. of shelves: From 2 up to 4 and top.Thickness of the shelves: 25 mm / 1”Height between shelves: 95 mm (3” ¾) or 165 mm (6” ½), between last and top shelf; from 95 mm (3” ¾) up to 350 mm (13” ¾) for the other shelvesOverall dimensions: 1140 x 565 mm / 45” x 22” ¼ (W x D)Useful size: Two place 500 x 500 mm (20” x 20”) for each shelf (excluded top and side shelves)Useful size of the top shelf: 600 x 500 mm / 23” ½ x 20” (W x D)Max loaded: 140 Kgs each shelf - 80 Kgs for top shelfDecoupling: By gum o-ringNote: Supplied in kit - Expandable

McIntosh MCD 301

The CD/SACD player from McIntosh is constructed in a very solid way. Typical for McIntosh the front panel is made of glass with aluminum side strips, all the other sides of the enclosure are made from aluminum sheets. Central place of the front is occupied by the disc drawer, above it is a green lit logo, below it a blue display, divided in two sections. The left one displays the track number or time (depending on the chose configuration), and the right one displays the current volume on the variable output port. On both sides of the drawer two big, black knobs were placed, with an aluminum edge – the left one is used to skip forward and back, the right one controls the output volume. Below there are two rows of buttons used to access other functions of the drive, we can also select the layer of a hybrid SACD disc (we can play the CD and SACD stereo layer, the SACD MCh is not available), as well as place the player in standby. There is also a headphone socket available.
The back panel is also well equipped. There are two sets of analog RCA outputs and two XLR – one balanced and one unbalanced set are with fixed output voltage, the other variable. Unfortunately the RCA sockets are close together, what can prevent installation of cables with not typical plugs, or very thick ones. There are also digital outputs provided, a coaxial S/PDIF and optical TOSLINK (the digital signal is available only when playing a CD or CD layer from a hybrid disc). Besides those, there are also four sockets for Mac’s system bus and an IEC socket.

Interesting solutions are also to be found inside. The central place is taken by the drive, taken from Denon (a brand from the same financial group as McIntosh), closed inside protective shielding and placed on special support pillars. The audio circuitry is placed on one L-shaped PCB. The digital to analog conversion is done in the Burr-Brown DSD 1792 DAC chip. The output circuits are balanced and doubled – one complete set, with the addition of an integrated resistor ladder, is there for the variable output and the other handles the fixed set. The power supply has a separate PCB and split in many sections, powering the analog section, digital section and drive separately. It is worth noticing, that two unusual solution were applied there – the IEC socket is blocked with a mains filter, a not very common solution, but really recommended, and there is also the possibility to change the mains voltage by simply re-plugging a special plug connected to the primary windings of the R-core transformer to a different socket.
Simple, yet effective.

MCD 301 Technical data:
- RCA and XLR sockets with a fixed level
- RCA and XLR sockets with variable level
- High class headphone amplifier
- Optical and coaxial digital output
- Double laser for CD and SACD read
Played formats:
Analog sockets:
RCA fixed 2VRMS
XLR fixed 4VRMS
RCA variable 6VRMS
XLR variable 12VRMS
Frequency response: SACD 4HZ-40kHZ +0.5dB/-2dB; CD 4HZ-20kHZ +/-0.5dB
S/N ratio: 110dB
Dynamics: 100dB
THD: SACD 0.002%; CD 0.003%
Power consumption: 35 W
Dimensions: (WxSxG) 15 x 45 x 40 cm.
Weight: 12.8 kg

McIntosh MA 7000

MA7000 has of course some flaws – it is an integrated amplifier after all and that means some limitations. I mentioned sound stage “in the window”. What I meant was that there is almost nothing happening outside the space between speakers. Same goes for elements out of phase, those are of course present behind and at both side of the listener but rather “by the way” than with clear intention to create “surrounding space”. Simply what matters is behind speakers. Another element worth mentioning is how the relations between basic sound and reverberations is built.. McIntosh “promotes” the first one, shortening the latter and thus slightly blurrs acoustics. I mean comparing it to the top high-end devices - the less expensive ones (with very few exceptions) don't do it better. But with outstanding sound stage you hear that as a weakness. I think this might be a reason why McIntosh is commonly associated with a distance, lack of dynamics and so on. In this particular case it is out of the question. Dynamics is outstanding, but is it the fact that the sound of instruments is not well differentiated, that they lack that little “something” that extents sounds when they are “in the air”, might give you, with the incorrect system setup, such a (wrong) impression.
MA7000 is like a dream when it come to its functionality. McIntosh simply knows how to do it right. I did not need to use tone control even once but I know there are some people who will like it. There is built in high quality MM phonostage – all you have to do is add some nice step-up transformer, use some high grade MC cartridge and then listen to your vinyl collection. There is also a head-amp available but I didn't like it too much – it sounded “mechanical”, but it was still better than what we find in most integrated amplifiers. Simply after using headphone output from MCD500 player (also from McIntosh) rather very few build in head-amplifiers could surprise me. Its design, long live and high prices for second hand devices are another elements of the whole puzzle. Not everybody will love the sound – that's obvious – but you should listen to it first to find out what you don't like. I am pretty sure that after an audition lot of you will go home with certainty that considering the price, you could live with this sound for the rest of your life.

MA7000 is the biggest so far McIntosh integrated amplifier. It is also one of the heaviest – almost 45 kg! It is classic McIntosh design. Front panel made of thick glass. In the upper part we can find blue illuminated power output Watt meters – calibrated to show even the smallest power output. Meters are there just to satisfy customers… Between them you will find two red LEDs that are indicators of one the the company's unique patents – Power Guard. This is a circuit that protects the device from overdriving the power. It doesn't simply cut the power but gently compresses power peaks so that the signal waveform, Power Guard is comparing, stays the same and there are no audible distortions. Below you will find a nice row of controls – two bigger ones at the sides, and five small in the middle. On the left side there is a balance control, on the right a volume control. Small controls in the middle are in fact complex equalizer controls. Equalizer is considered to be unnecessary or even harmful nowadays, but when correctly designed it might come handy surprisingly often. The real reason of avoiding equalizers is simple – no magic about it – well designed equalizer costs a lot, especially like this one with five frequencies: 30/150/500/1500/10000 Hz. There is no on/off button – it doesn't process the signal if control is in the middle position. Beneath there is a row of push-buttons – input selector (6 linear inputs and one MM phono input), mono, output (x 2) and ‘mute’. Rear panel connections are placed in two groups. One is located in the lower part of the chassis, and the other one in the upper part.. Lower part consists of gold finished RCA connectors and XLR preamplifier's output, and in the upper part two balanced XLR inputs with two RCA unbalanced right beside them, plus excellent WBT speaker terminals – like in tube amplifiers separate for different loadings - 2/4/8 Ω. Preamplifier and amplifier sections are connected via jumpers – I would prefer if it was done with electro-magnetic switch somewhere inside the device.

As already mentioned the inside is divided into two parts. Lower part is a preamplifier based on electro-magnetic switches of input selector, transistors and operational amplifiers NE5532. We can find there another circuit - TLC174 by Texas Instruments, eight-channel amplifier, working most likely as tone control. In the upper part of the device we will find power transistors fixed directly to huge radiators, that are visible at the side of the device. There are also four big capacitors – their task is to level current fluctuations for this part of device. The secondary winding is common for both power transistors. There is a separate one for preamplifier, hence advanced power supply in the lower part of the amplifier, where each section - input, driver, meters, safety circuits and so on have their on power supplies. The transformer (EI) itself is huge, packed in a metal case filled up with some dumping material. Autoformers (output transformers) were put into similar cases. All transformers are located in the front of the chassis. They are not hidden under the top plate of the chassis so together with beautiful front they make a nice, attractive design. There are twelve Power Transistors used in each channel of the MA7000Power Output Circuitry. Those are special elements called Thermaltracks. This allows for the instantaneous and accurate monitoring of the power transistor temperature. A specially designed bias circuit precisely controls and adjusts temperature of power transistors so that they always work in the same conditions. As mentioned before, balanced outputs (two pairs) are located separately in the amplifier's part of the chassis. XLR connectors are partnered by RCA ones, right behind the latter signal is symmetrized in inexpensive, low-noise NE5532 circuits. Signal goes from there to the lower part of the amplifier through computer cable.

Technical data:
Output power: 2 x 250W/8, 4 i 2Ω (20-20 000Hz)
THD: 0,005% (maximum rated power)
Frequency response:
(+0, -0.5dB) 20Hz-20 000Hz
(+0, -3dB) 10Hz-100 000Hz
Pre Amp Output: 2.5V (RCA, max. 8V); 5 V (XLR, max. 16V)
Input sensitivity (for 250 W): 250mV (RCA), 500mV (XLR)
S/N ratio (weighted) -100dB, -84dB Pre amp
Total harmonic distortion: < 0.005%
Wide band damping factor: 40
Input impedance: 20kΩ, Pre amp 47kΩ/65pF
Dimensions (WxHxD): 444,5 x 239,7 x 558,8 mm
Weight: 44,3kg

GOLDENOTE "Bellavista Signature" turntable

GOLDENOTE® is a range of products of prestigious and sophisticated Italian design featuring unique and innovative technical and aesthetic characteristics. The Bellavista Signature is the top class turntable of the rigid series. The turntable is carefully made of parts exclusively manufactured for Goldenote with the highest standards and quality materials to reach a superior sonic performance.
The turntable features a double 20mm thick black acrylic plinth decoupled with six bronze spacers cylinders. The turntable also features a 20mm thick platter made of solid black polyvinyl. Underneath the platter there are 9 gold plated weights to increase the peripheral mass of the platter. As such, the rotation stability is improved. The Bellavista Signature also employs a high precision aluminium pulley to guarantee perfect speed capability.
The innovative platter bearing/spindle system, much larger and longer than the usual ones, is based on a bronze external threaded bearing that ensures perfect on axis alignment. Both are electronically machined and polished to tolerances smaller than 1/100 of a millimeter, to achieve exceptional sound performance. Also, at the bottom of the platter bronze bearing a special threaded bearing made of Arnite© (one of the hardest and toughest self lubricant plastic polymers) allows for a smoother turntable rotation and eventually a VTA adjustment normally available only through the tone arm setting.
Construction features
- The BELLAVISTA is rigid turntable that, like all the turntables of the Goldenote line, uses a plinth made in black highdensity polished acrylic obtained via “polymeric melting The black plinth has 3 aluminium height-adjustable feet with a semi-conical shape featuring central grooves to ensure greater insensitivity to vibrations. Each foot has a recessed spike may be used to couple rigidly the turntable on its shelf.
- The turntable platter is in “extruded” polyvinyl, an ideal very deaf dampening material. Below the platter are 9 goldplated brass weights, which increase the peripheral inertia of the platter and thus further improve the rotational regularity and stability.
- The spindle is 80mm long made with C40 steel rectified & polished to achieve super high-level tolerances. A large longitudinal groove is located on its axis, which allows the lubricating oil to run in constant manner.
- The longer spindle eradicates any pendulum effect and distributes the inertial energy along its entire axis, completely annulling any type of lateral friction.
- When the turntable is new the spindle will tend to “clean” any residual dirt in the bearing. In this way even the tiniest residual friction built up after only a few dozen hours operation will be completely eliminated.
- The bearing that houses the spindle is made entirely in bronze and has a thrust washer made of ARNITE® located on the bottom that allows for:
- Perfect coupling.
- Adjustment of the VTA carried out directly on the turntable plinths.
- The possibility of eliminating virtually every type of friction that could build up during the years with conventional bearing/spindles.
- Moreover, the bearing is threaded on the outside in order to be tightly anchored to the board of the turntable on its own axis. The bearing is locked onto a brass ring support specially designed to obtain a perfect flat coupling.,
- The clamp that is made of aluminium alloy chosen for its excellent sound performance.
- The motor, which is AC (synchronous) 24 pole with an extremely high coupling coefficient and very low noise, is moved by a custom made capacitor. The performs the innovative HDM (Highly Dampened Motor) system to drastically reduce vibrations
- The pulley is enable fast 33/45 manual convenient switch 

"Bellavista Signature is the top Goldenote turntable. It has a not decoupled chassis, made from two, 20mm plates of black acryl, separated by six brass, chrome plated, distances. As written in the company materials, the rounded edges of the plinth are not just a decorative move, but increase its rigidity. The platter is exceptional. It is made from a material called Sustarin, which is based on polyvinyl. Its upper part is covered with grooves, and is quite hard, similar to SME turntables. The platter is not so heavy, as it is only 22mm thick, but nine brass, chrome plated, or gold plated, weights are mounted beneath, exactly like in Michell Engineering turntables, what improves on inertia, while not adding unnecessary mass. The latter is a good thing, but some companies claim, that when a platter is too heavy, then it cumulates energy, and releases it later as vibration. The synchronous motor is mounted on the same chassis. On its axis we have an aluminum pulley, in the patented shape Tulipan – the sides are cut, and there is a bolt in the middle, which extends or contracts the sides of the pulley. This way the revolutions can be controlled in a very precise way. The torque is transmitted by a large, rubber belt. The power switch is in the front, on the lower plinth. However, there is no automatic rpm change, what is a big miss in a turntable of this class. There is a heavy clamp to attach the disc to the platter. On the top plinth the bearing is mounted – as written in the company materials – this is an innovative construction, with a much longer and thicker shaft, working in a bed mad from hardened bronze. This is called Split-Spindle, and has to provide perfect fit and lack of hammering. Fitting is also assured by very precise machine working, including polishing, what allows for a lower tolerance than 1/100mm. This steel element – the spindle and mini-subplatter – connects very well with the main platter. Let’s add, that on the bottom of the bed we have a special material called Arnite – one of the hardest, most rigid, self-lubricating polymer."

Wow and Flutter:  0,03%
Rumble:  -80 dB
Speed: 33  and 45 rpm ±0,1%
Speed Changing:  manual
Transmission:  70 shores elasticity rectified black polyvinyl belt
Motor:  24 poles on double rail synchronous AC powered
Platter:  Sustarin®
Platter Spindle:  Special Split-Spindle clamping the platter
Platter Bearing:  Finely polished bronze made
Mains Supply:  100/115/230V, 50/60 Hz, (depending on market destination and not convertible)
Power Consumption:  5 W
Motor:  12V Synchronous Motor High Torque externally powered
External AC Filter:  Lucca Power Distributor
Other:  Gold Note Lucca power chord
Dimensions (W x H x D):   470 x 180 x 360 mm
Weight:   12 kg
Main Plinth:  Black polished acrylic
Metal Parts:  Silver
Platter:  Black and chrome

GOLDENOTE "Betania" tonearm

Betania is the best Goldenote tonearm. This is a construction of the type gimbaled-arm, with a tube made of grade 2 titanium and special aluminum alloy. This is also the first arm of the company, made in such a way, that there are six segments with different diameters. Three sections have a wall thickness of 6/10mm, and three are 1/10mm thicker. This type of construction should eliminate all the vibration from the rotating disc. The counterweight moves on a steel shaft – it can be amended by a small element, that lowers the gravity point, what is very desirable. Antiscating is made from a weight on a string. The internal cabling is made from silver plated copper wires, and the interconnects are soldered to it, and made from silver.

Technical data (according to manufacturer):
Full length: 255mm
Effective length: 240mm
Effective mass: 10g
VTA: adjustable
Internal cabling: awg36 Hyper Litz from silver plated copper 99,9999%, shielded
Mass: 480 g

GOLDENOTE "Baldinotti" cartridge

Baldinotti is probably the most known cartridge by Goldenote, although it is not the most expensive one – higher in the catalog there are the Baldinotti Aurum and Tuscany. This is an MC cartridge, with an output voltage 0.3mV. Its body is made from a precisely machined aluminum block, anodized blue. The cantilever, with an oval shape, is made from two elements, what should eliminate vibration. The diamond has a very thin Super Micro Elliptical cut. The coils are wound with best available OFC copper. The suspension is made from a special polymer, which changes very little in time.

Technical data (according to manufacturer):
Output Voltage: 0.3 mV
Frequency Response: 18 - 45,000 Hz
Impedance: 50 Ω
Compliance: 5 CUs.
Channel Sparation: 30 dB
Mass: 16 g
Suggested Tracking Force: 2.4g  ±0.4g
Cut: Super Micro Elliptical
Body: Aluminum


Power Amplifier Section for Direct Coupled Pure Complementary Output Capacitorless Circuitry
Input Capacitorsless Differential Amplifier for Low Noise Junction Type FETs in first stage of Equalizer Amp.
Low noise Operational Amp's  I.C. in Tone Control Section
Two large Power Meters with wide range scales, 300 mW - 60W and 30 mW - 3W
Tape Monitor A/B with Tape to Tape Dubbing Selector
Speaker Selector for two pair speaker systems
Tone control, Bass and Treble, with Defeat SW
20 dB Attenuator
Mode Selector

Low Filter

Power Amp Section
Power Output Both Channels Driven (RMS, 8 Ω  20 Hz - 20 kHz): 2 x 55W  
Total Harmonic Distortion  (at rated power):  0,1%
Total Harmonic Distortion  (at 1watt):  0,06%
Intermodulation Distortion  (at rated power):  0,1%
Power Bandwidth:  5 Hz - 40,000 Hz
Damping Factor (8Ω):  50
Output Impedance:  4-16 Ω
Signal-to-Noise  Ratio:  100 dB
Preamplifier Section
Input Sensitivity/Impedance:
Phono 1:  2,5mV/50 K Ω
Tuner:  150mV/50 K Ω
Aux:  150mV/50 K Ω
Tape:  150mV/50 K Ω
Signal-to-Noise  Ratio;
Phono :  76 dB
Tuner:  90 dB
Aux:  90 dB
Tape:  90 dB
Phono Overload Level:  200 mV
Tape Output
Line:  150 mV/100 Ω
DIN:  30 mV/80 K Ω
Frequency Response:
Phono RIAA:  ± 0,3 dB
Aux,Tape,Tuner:  20 Hz - 40 KHz ±0,5 dB
Bass control:  ±10 dB at 100 Hz
Treble control:  ±10 dB at 10 KHz
Low Filter:  12 dB/oct at 40 Hz
Step 1 :  0 dB
Step 2 :  -20 db
Power Requirements:  240 V AC
Power Consumption:  max 340 W
Dimension (W x H x D):  380 x 140 x 255 mm

Weight : 10,5  kg  


Meccanica tipo CMK-3 V.R.D.S. (Vibration-free Rigid Disc-clamping System = sistema di bloccaggio del disco rigido e non vibrante)Diversamente dai convenzionali lettori di CD, nei quali la meccanica sostiene soltanto il centro del disco vicino al perno, l'esclusivo progetto TEAC V.R.D.S. blocca l'intera superficie del disco con un pesante piattello rotante. Tale progetto riesce a compensare irregolarità anche leggere nella levigatezza della superficie, comuni in quasi tutti i CD, che possono essere incrementate dalla rotazione del disco.
Con il sistema V.R.D.S. il tracciamento sul disco avviene con maggiore precisione: questo garantisce una lettura più precisa dei dati digitali codificati sul disco, evitando nel contempo indebite sollecitazioni sul meccanismo di servocomando del pickup laser. Il risultato complessivo è una centratura sulle tracce più omogenea e precisa, a cui corrisponde un evidente miglioramento delle prestazioni sonore.
La meccanica V.R.D.S. CMK-3 utilizza un piattello pressofuso in alluminio di alta preisione, con telaio di supporto rinforzato da spesse costolature. la base per questo supporto è costruita in materiale speciale ad alto polimero, che si ottiene miscelando fibra di vetro e polvere ceramica in base di poliestere. Paragonato alla normale plastica ABS, questo materiale ha una densitàquasi doppia e può vantare superiori caratteristiche elettriche e meccaniche. Inoltre, dato il suo coefficiente di espansione termica estremamente basso, mantiene una notevole stabilità dimensionale entro un'ampia gamma di temperature, diventando estremamente resistente alla deformazione termica. L'ultimo importante elemento che contribuisce alle prestazioni della meccanica V.R.D.S. è un motore Hall senza spazzole ad alta coppia ed elevata precisione, che conferisce al piattello una rotazione estremamente stabile, garantendo nel contempo notevole silenziosità e lunga durata.

Il D.S.R.L.L. (Digital Servo Ratio Looked Loop = anello di aggancio a rapporto del servo digitale) riduce il jitter a 1/100I segnali digitali per riproduzione audio risentono inevitabilmente del fenomeno jitter (vibrazione sull'asse del tempo) provocato da diversi fattori nell'ambito dell'interfaccia digitale. Il prcedente metodo a PLL si limitava a ridurre il jitter oltre 20 kHz; il nuovo D.S.R.L.L. invece riesce a tagliare il jitter sopra 3 Hz nella banda udibile a 1/100 (40dB) rispetto ai precedenti modelli. Diventa cosi possibile l'accurata riproduzione dell'informazione spaziale che è sempre stata estremamente difficile da esprimere: ne risulta un campo sonoro davvero entusiasmante.
Il circuito compensatore della distorsione ZD-II utilizza segnali dither per ottenere una conversione ideale.Il circuito ZD-II lavora con una tecnica, usata da tempo nelle apparecchiature per la registrazione digitale professionale, conosciuta come "dithering". Il dither è una forma di rumore digitale casuale, che viene aggiunto al segale digitale prima della conversione D/A e poi sottratto in uno stadio succesivo. La linearità del flusso dei bit ne risulta migliorata ed il rumore proveniente dall'errore di conversione D/A viene ampiamente "disperso" nelle frequenze più elevate, oltre il livello udibile dall'orecchio umano.
Grazie al circuito ZD-II, esclusivo TEAC, il rumore e la distorsione diventano molto meno udibili, mentre i segnali deboli e delicati vengono riprodotti con ricchezza e chiarezza sonore insuperabili. Questo circuito opera in metodo a doppio differenziale ed utilizza un amplificatore a larga banda da 50 MHz per migliorare nettamente il rapporto segnale/rumore. Insieme al convertitore D/A da 20 bit, con scostamento 1/16, permette al VRDS-25 di raggiungere prestazioni complessive apprezzabilmente più elevate nella conversione D/A.
Funzionamento dei convertitori D/A da 20 bit, con scostamento 1/16
Il VRDS-25 contiene quattro convertitori D/A da 20 bit, con circuito ZD-II per la compensazione della distorsione (prima descritto) per garantire la riproduzione naturale delsuono, esente da rumore. I convertitori D/A funzionano inoltre con un nuovo processo di scostamenta da 1/16, che riduce considerevolmente gli effetti della distorsione d'incrocio con lo zero nel campo digitale. Grazie a questo processo, il punto funzionale a 0 volt dei convertitori viene spostato di 1/16 del valore di fondo scala: pertanto il punto d'incrocio con lo zero del segnale audio risulta spostato rispetto al punto a 0 volt dei convertitori. La distorsione d'incrocio con lo zero viene cosi ridotta di circa un ottavo: di conseguenza, i segnali musicali compresi nella banda critica a -18 dB risultano virtualmente esenti da non-linearità e distorsione. Questo processo completa in maniera ideale i vantaggi del circuito ZD-II, permettendo di ottenere una riproduzione musicale straordinamente pura e trasparente.Il VRDS-25 contiene inoltre un filtro digitale a 25 bit, con sovracampionamento ottuplo, in configurazione discreta sinistro/desto, che permette di ottenere una riproduzione sonora incredibilmente limpida.
Il telaio.
La piastra superiore è composta da tre pezzi in accaio di notevole spessore. I panelli sinistro e destro, integrati con i panelli laterali a forma di L, sono sagomati in modo da opporre forte resistenza allla torsione e alla flessione. Blocchi di alluminio puro, non magnetico, a forma di ponte, irrobustiscono ulteriormente il telaio e suddividono l'intero in tre sezioni, evitando cosi che convertitore D/A, meccanica e servosistema interferiscano con l'alimentazione. Con il suo panello inferiore spesso 2 mm, il telaio pesa da solo 11 kg.
Grazie anche al panello anteriore, ricavato da un blocco di alluminio spesso 15 mm, nonchè alle basi di appoggio fatte di un nuovo metallo sinterizzato, questo telaio evito che vibrazzioni o risonanze anche minime possano influenzare i componenti interni.
Risposta in frequenza: RCA; 1Hz - 20kHz, ±0,3 dB,
XLR; 20Hz - 20kHz, ±0,3 dB
Rapporto segnale/rumore: migliore di 110 dB (1 kHz)
Campo dinamico: migliore di 99 dB (1kHz)
Distorsione armonica: 0,0015% (1 kHZ)
Wow e flutter: non misurabili (precisione al quarzo)
Separazione tra i canali: migliore di 108 dB (1 kHz)
Uscita analogica: 2,2 Vrms (RCA), 2,2 Vrms (XLR)
Uscita digitale: 0,5 Vp-p/75 ohms;
(coassiale) -21 dBm, (ottica) -15 dBm
Conversione D/A: 4 convertitori D/A da 20 bit, scostamento 1/16
Filtro digitale: da 25 bit, con sovracampionamento ottuplo
Filtro analogico: Butterworth del III ordine
Dimensioni (L, A, P): 442 x 153 x 344 mm (comprese basi di appoggio)
Peso (netto): 16,5 kg

McIntosh MA 6800

Those considering a McIntosh system for the first time will find integrated amplifiers a comfortable place to start. In virtually every respect the MA6800 perform as well as McIntosh separates. Both models incorporate premium McIntosh technologies – including autoformers, Power Assurance, and Silent Electromagnetic Switching – as well as several features that facilitate system integration and expansion.

An impedance mismatch between a power amplifier and a loudspeaker can cause distortion and a reduction in power. The legendary McIntosh autoformer is a hand-crafted transformer with output connections for 2, 4, and 8 ohms, allowing an ideal impedance match between amp and speaker. A McIntosh amplifier with an autoformer can also safely drive multiple speakers connected in parallel without shortening the life of the output stage. There is absolutely no performance penalty with an autoformer. In fact, its frequency response exceeds that of the output circuit itself, and extends well beyond the audible range. Distortion is so low it is virtually immeasurable.

2 x 150 watts (8/4/2 ohms)
Exclusive McIntosh output autoformers
Wide power bandwidth with ultra-low distortion
Exclusive McIntosh Power Assurance System:
Power Guard® clipping protection
Sentry Monitor® current protection
Thermal Cutout
DC Failure protection
Turn-On Delay
Soft Start inrush protection
Illuminated peak-responding meters
Silent electromagnetic switching
Precision-trimmed volume control with digital readout
Active Variable Loudness Compensation
Exclusive McIntosh tone controls
8 source selections (phono input on MA6800 only)
Switching for 2 pairs of speakers (with optional SCR3 Speaker Relay)
Independent listen and record selection
Dual processor loops
Accommodates more sources with McIntosh MVS3 A/V Selector
Control data output for source components
Remote power control
Remote operation of lights, screens, and drapes with McIntosh HC1 Home Controller
Power and mute indications shown on multizone keypads and sensors
Electronically regulated power supply with double-shielded transformer
Gold-plated input and output jacks
Fanless convection cooling
Modular construction with steel chassis
Glass front panel with illuminated nomenclature
Infrared remote control
Connector for external IR sensor or keypad controller
Headphone jack (MA6800 only)

RMS Power Output (8/4/2 ohms):
150W min. sine wave continuous average power output per channel
from 20Hz to 20kHz with both channels operating
Output Load Impedance:
2, 4, or 8 ohms
Rated Power Band:
20Hz to 20kHz
Peak Output Current:
> 50 amperes
Total Harmonic Distortion:
0.005% max. at any level from 250 milliwatts to rated power per
channel from 20Hz to 20kHz with all channels operating
Intermodulation Distortion:
0.005% max. if instantaneous peak power output
does not exceed twice the rated output
Dynamic Headroom:
Frequency Response:
20Hz to 20kHz, +0 / -0.5dB
Input Sensitivity:
High level: 250mV for rated output (1.4V at Main out)
Phono (MA6800 only): 2.5mV for 2.5V rated output (0.5mV IHF)
Main in: 1.4V for rated output
Maximum Input Signal:
High level: 10V
Phono (MA6800 only): 90mV
S/N Ratio (A-Weighted):
Power amp: 110dB below rated output
High level: 100dB below rated output
Phono (MA6800 only): 90dB below 10mV input (84dB)
Damping Factor:
> 40
Input Impedance:
High level: 22k ohms
Phono: 47k ohms, 65pf
Main in: 20k ohms
Power Guard®:
Clipping is prevented and THD does not exceed 2%
with up to 14dB overdrive at 1kHz
Tone Controls:
Bass and treble: ±12dB
Power Requirements:
120V 50/60Hz, 6.5A
Dimensions (h x w x d):
inch: 7.062 x 17.5 x 20
cm: 17.9 x 44.5 x 50.8
knob clearance: 1.125" (2.9 cm)
70 lbs. (31.8kg) net
89 lbs. (40.4kg) shipping

McIntosh MA 6600

The looks of the amplifier is even more typical for McIntosh, if you can imagine that. The cabinet was split in five sections: just behind the fascia we have a compartment housing the amplifier’s control circuitry, the VU meters and their lighting and the optical fibers for lighting the logo. Behind this section there are three separate cups for the big mains transformer and two (one for each channel) adapting transformers, called autoformers by the company. The last part of the enclosure houses the audio circuitry. The glass front houses two big VU meters, scaled in output power (it is interesting to observe them – during the listening session they only rarely passed the 2W mark, while the volume was significantly high). Between the meters there is a green lit logo. Below them, there are four knobs and a alphanumeric display. This display shows blue characters on a black background and is quite readable (but would prefer a blue lit one, it would look better with the meters). The left most knob selects the active input, next one, being a bit smaller, selects menu entries, the smaller on the right selects a menu function, and the right most controls the volume. All the knobs are just impulse generators, and can be turned around without any constraints, and the functions are being displayed on the mentioned display. The lower part of the front is occupied by a headphones socket and buttons: store, mono, bypass, mute, output 1 and 2 on and off and standby. Oh, I almost forgot – above the display there are two LEDs, which light when the protection circuit is activated.
The back panel is split in two parts. The larger upper part contains the gold plated loudspeaker terminals, which accept all kinds of wire termination. Interesting are the outputs for 8, 4 and 2. This is related to the usage of autoformers. They have a similar function to output transformers in tube amplifiers – adapt the output impedance to the loudspeaker load. In the middle of this section of the back panel we find also a XLR input. The bottom part is much more crowded. To the left we have an IEC socket, then a whole array of system communication sockets and an external remote sensor connection. Then we have a battery of RCA sockets: five high level inputs, MM gramophone input, power amplifier direct input, two preamplifier outputs, one connected to the power amplifier input by a cramp, the other one is not connected, those can be switched on and off from the front buttons, and finally there is a recorder output. I have just one complaint about the RCAs – those are too close together.
Inside the amplifier we find one surprise: a socket for the optional tuner module, nicely shielded by a metal mesh. The power section is built symmetrically for both channels, on vertical PCBs mounted directly to heat sinks placed on both sides of the enclosure. Each channel consists of four pairs of transistors. Unfortunately I did not get through to the rest of the elements of the amplifier, I could only see that those were mounted on one big PCB, placed on the bottom of the unit.

MA6600 Integrated Amplifier Specifications
200 watts is the minimum sine wave continuous average power output per channel, both channels operating

RATED POWER BAND: 20Hz to 20,000Hz
0.005% maximum with both channels operating from 250 milliwatts to rated power, 20Hz to 20,000Hz
+0, -0.5dB from 20Hz to 20,000Hz
+0, -3dB from 10Hz to 100,000Hz
PREAMPLIFIER OUTPUT 1 AND 2 (FOR RATED INPUT): 1.4V unbalanced (8V Maximum)
High Level, 250mV unbalanced, 500mV balanced
Phono, 2.5 mV; Power Amp In, 1.4V
SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO (A-WEIGHTED)High Level, 92dB below rated output
Phono, 84dB below 5mV input
Power Amplifier, 115 below rated output
0.005% maximum, if the instantaneous peak power is 400 watts or less per channel with both channels operating for any combination of frequencies from 20Hz to 20,000Hz
High Level, 20K ohms
Phono, 47K ohms; 65pF
Power Amp In, 10K ohms
High Level, 8V unbalanced, 16V balanced
Phono, 80mV: Power Amplifier In, 16V
High Level to Rec Output: 0dB
High Level to Output 1 and 2: 15dB
Phono to Rec Output: 40dB
Phono to Output 1 and 2: 55dB
Power Amplifier: 29dB
Bass Control ±12dB (1dB steps) @ 30Hz
Treble Control ±12dB (1dB steps) @ 10,000Hz

SONUS FABER "Electa Amator"

Il diffusore che ha fatto conoscere Sonus faber nel mondo.
La grazia della linea, la morbidezza della forma e la dolcezza del suono
hanno conquistato migliaia di appassionati.
Il modello è stato prodotto per oltre dieci anni senza apportare modifiche.

Sistema Low "Q" Reflex
Mid-woofer: 180 mm, MW- 180 -SF
Tweeter a cupola: 28 mm, T 330 D Esotar
Impedenza: 8 ohms nominale
Efficienza: 88 dB
Potenza: 30 - 200 Watts
Risposta in frequenza: 45 - 30.000 Hz ±3 dB
Frequenza crossover: 2.2 kHz
Collegamento "bi-wiring"
Cabinet non risonante, realizzato a mano
in legno di rosa brasiliano e noce mediterraneo.
Versione con finitura a lacca nera lucida a
sei stratti tipo Steinway
Misure: 220 x 370 x 350
Peso: 15 Kg
The speaker that made Sonus faber renowned all over the world.
Its elegant lines, its gentle shape and the sweetness of its sound
won over thousands of enthusiasts. This model was produced
for more than ten years without alterations.
“Hand-made sound”, from the Latin Sonus faber.
We wanted to give this name to our work, to our way of making sound “sensed”.
The speaker cabinet is of such fundamental importance
that we drew inspiration from the construction concepts
of stringed instruments, where the value of the instrument
lies in the care taken with creating its soundbox..
This is how our speakers achieve their pure, absolute, definitive acoustic timbre

This speaker has amazed listeners with its ability, despite its size, to deliver surprising amounts of musical "information", a natural choice for those demanding the most of their equipment. It was conceived with precision and technical expertise, to leave nothing to accident and to deliver to the listener all that is presented to its terminals. Electa Amator demands the finest of electronics, preferring imperious orders to silky suggestions. It is a champion that has earned prized international recognition. It is forceful, decisive and bursting with immediacy. A single listening to a perfectly installed pair of Electa Amators, demonstrates its personality better than a thousand words.

Low "Q" reflex system
Mid-woofer: 180 mm, MW- 180 -SF
Tweeter dome: 28 mm, T 330 D Esotar
Impedance: 8 ohms nominal
Efficiency: 88 dB
Power: 30 to 200 Watts
Frequency response: 45-30.000 Hz ±3 dB
Crossover frequency: 2.2 kHz
Bi-wiring connection
Cabinet construction: Handcrafted non resonant
solid Brasilian wood and italian walnut
Available too with glass black lacquer finishing.
six coats, type Steinway
Dimensions: 220 x 370 x 350
Weight: 15 Kg

BASSOCONTINUO Audio Systems - Regale Phono

General description: audio table for sources.
Adjustable massive stainless steel spikes.
Sandwich structure shelf.
Bases with interchangeable decoupling cylinder.
Structure made of 60 mm (2” 3/8) diameter solid stainless steel AISI303 - Shelf in MDF.
No. of shelves: 1
Thickness of the shelf: 60 mm / 2” 3/8
Total height: 800 mm / 31” ½
Useful height of lower shelf: 250 mm / 10”
Useful size of the shelf: Large size 570 x 670 mm / 22” 7/16 x 26” 3/8 (W x D);
Medium Size 600 x 550 mm / 23” ½ x 21” ½ (W x D)
Max loaded: 150 Kgs / 330 lbs.
Decoupling: Sandwich structure shelf with nitrile gum inside;
bases with interchangeable decoupling cylinders made of Delrin®, PU, NBR.

BASSOCONTINUO Audio Systems - Atabal S

Stand conceived for center loudspeaker in
Audio/video system.
Implementable modular structure.
Base and top made of big thickness Plexiglas.
Adjustable spikes to fight the vibrations and for a perfect setting.
Massive base disk to protect delicate surface like parquet.
Decoupling by o-ring and gum washer
Completely customizable by on-line configurator

General description:

Modular stand for center channel loudspeaker.

Adjustable spikes with massive base disks.

Base and top made of hand polished Plexiglas.

Materials: Structure made of stainless steel AISI313.

Shelves made of PlexiglasThickness of the shelf: 25 mm / 1”

Total height: From 405 mm (16”) up to 660 mm (26”)

Basement overall dimension: 250 x 300 mm / 10” x 12” (W x D)

Useful size: Available in 3 different sizes; see technical data sheet

Decoupling: By gum o-ring

Note: Supplied in kit