What is stereo?




There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.




H.H. Scott '59





Technics RS-M231X cassette deck

Technics presents a stereo cassette deck with a rare combination; 3 major noise reduction systems, and a low price. In addition to the RS-M231X's Dolby B and C noise reduction circuitry is dbx, which doesn't just reduce background tape noise but eliminates it. We've also furnished the RS-M231X with soft-touch transport keys, a metal compatible MX head, and convenient  slider controls for input level and balance adjustment.

dbx, Dolby B and Dolby C
The most effective of the deck's noise reduction systems is dbx, which eliminates tape noise and gives your tape the ability to reproduce up to a 110 dB difference in volume levels (or dynamic range) of a live performance, dbx reduces noise by at least 30 dB, pushing tape hiss below audibility, and increases headroom by about 10 dB so the tape can accept loud music signals without distorting them. The result is concert-like realism.
The RS-M231X is also equipped with a dbx disc decoder, so you can experience the same live-performance excitement from the ever-increasing number of dbx-encoded LPs as you do from dbx-encoded tapes.
Dolby B, the noise reduction system used in many cassette decks and prerecorded tapes, and Dolby C, an improved version of Dolby B, both reduce tape noise, especially in the high frequency range, where tape hiss is most noticeable.

Soft-Touch Controls
The soft-touch controls, which require only a light touch to operate, boast an impressive array of convenience features. Mechanical logic allows you to switch from fast forward or rewind directly to play, without having to touch the "stop" key. For recording, just touch the "record" key instead of "record" and "play". And rewind auto-play begins playback automatically after the tape rewinds to the beginning. The deck also includes cue and review functions, and timer record/playback capability.

Input Level and Balance Slider Controls
The deck's dual slider system provides optimum precision in setting recording levels. For most recording, the master input level slider suffices adjusting both the left and right channels together. For such demanding situations as live recording, where microphones are used, the balance slider adjusts left/right channel balance.

Metal Compatible MX Head
Specially developed for metal tape compatibility, Technics' MX head handles metal tape's high signal and bias level requirements and provides smooth frequency response and wide dynamic range. Of course, this improves the performance of normal and CrO₂ tapes as well.

Other Features:
DC servo motor
Automatic mic/line input selector
Large illuminated level meters
Timer record/playback capability
Oil-damped cassette well door removable for easy maintenance.
Specifications
Track System:  4-track,2-channel stereo recording and playback
Tape Speed:  4,8 cm/s (1-7/8 ips)
Wow and Flutter:  0,048% WRMS
Frequency Response
Metal Tape :  20 - 19,000 Hz; 50 - 17,000 Hz (±3 dB)
CrO₂ Tape :  20 - 18,000 Hz ; 50 - 16,000 Hz (±3 dB)
Normal Tape :  20 - 17,000 Hz ; 50 - 15,000 Hz (±3 dB)
Dynamic Range:  110 dB (at 1 kHz, CrO₂) with dbx in
Max. Input Level Improvement:  10 dB or more with dbx in (at 1 kHz)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
dbx In :  92 dB
Dolby C NR In  :  75 dB (CCIR)
Dolby B NR In  :  67 dB (CCIR)
NR Out  :  57 dB
Fast Forward and Rewind Time:  approx. 90 sec. C-60 tape
Input Sensitivity/Impedance:
Mic :  0,25 mV, applicable mic. Impedance 400  - 10 k
Line :  60 mV/more than 47 k
Output Level?Impedance:
Line :  400 mv/1,5 k  or less
Headphones :  80 mv (at 8 ), applicable headphone impedance 8  - 600
Bias Frequency:  80 kHz
Motor:  DC servo motor
Heads:  2-head system
MX head for record/playback
Double Gap Ferrite Head for erasure
Power Requirements:  AC 120 V, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  16 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  430 x 109 x 235 mm (16-7/8" x 4-5/16" x 9-1/4")
Weight:  4,4 kg (9 lbs 11 oz)

Avid Model 230 speakers


Three-Way Acoustic Suspension Speaker
Avid's Model 230 3-way acoustic suspension speaker system employs newly developed Avid drivers consisting of a 12-inch woofer, 4,5-inch cone midrange and 1-inch dome tweeter. The cabinet enclosure and grille assembly are said to be engineered in a unique way to create a truly integrated acoustic system that significantly reduces unwanted cabinet diffraction effects that produce "boxy" sounds in other speaker systems. Special features include modular, zero-distortion dividing network assembly; speaker fuse overload protection; magnetic fluid technology with the Avid tweeter for improved power handling; "forward aligned" shallow-cone 10-inch woofer for reduced cone breakup. Optimum Dispersion Couplers for mid and high frequency drivers; "solid front" grille panels with rolled edges to significantly reduce cabinet edge diffraction.

An optional floor stand is available to properly time-align driver units.

Mitsubishi M-F01 tuner


A miniature FM Stereo tuner with Mighty performance and Quartz-PLL synthesizer tuning.
The M-F01 FM stereo tuner not only guarantees absolutely free from tuning drift thereafter. Unlike conventional FM tuners, whose performance depends very largely upon how well they are tuned system ensures  that it can always without exception, give its very best performance.
The quartz PLL tuning system is the secret of how this exceptional performance is obtained. The quartz crystal gives an extremely accurate  64 MHz signal that is divided by 128 to give a basic 50 kHz frequency. Comparing this reference frequency with one-half the local oscilator frequency enables any phase difference between them to be eliminated, effectively locking them together, this circuit is the phase locked loop (PLL). Under its action, the local oscillator is limited to frequencies that are exactly 100 kHz apart - e.g. 98,7; 98,8; 98,9 MHz etc.
The total harmonic distortion is completely independent of detuning frequency over wide limits, unlike conventional tuners.
Like other members of the Microcomponent series, the M-F01 features unusually clear LED type indicators. Here the locktune indicator is linked with the dial illumination; normally the dial numbers are edge litin white , but as soon as a station is tuned and locked, this is replaced by a gentle green glow. The five Leds on the left indicate signal strength. The pointer lights on either side of the tuning lock indicator go on to show which way the tuning knob should be turned for perfect tuning. As soon as only the tuning lock LED is lit, tuning has been completed, and the stereo LED will go on if the fM station is broadcasting in stereo. Of course you can switch over to mono listening if the station is too far away for good stereo reception - although the M-F01 is so sensitive that this shouldn't happen too often.
Another useful control lets you mute out interstation noise and stations too weak for good reception, so that you only receive stations capable of top-quality reception.

Wide, Flat Frequency response
Most FM tuners have a filter to get rid of the unwanted pilot signal (at 19 kHz), but these also affect the musical signal with frequencies below 19 kHz. In the M-F01 the pilot signal is cancelled out completely without the use of a filter, so that frequency response is flat to within ±1db at 16 kHz.
High performance Front-end
The all-important front end , that captures and processes the signal uses the same high precision five ganged tuning condeser as the prestigious DA-F20. mitsubishi's top tuner, making for great accuracy and stability. The M-F01 rejects spurious signals very effectively thanks to dual gate MOS-FeT's in the RF amplifier and mixer stages, and utilizes four pole linear phase LC filters for low distortion. Outstanding temperature and humidity stability are ensured by the use of aluminium cored coils and teflon trimmer-capacitors in the local oscillator, and glass epoxy printed circuit boards, all representative of the state-of-the-art..
Recording level Check Signal
A test signal at 440 Hz corresponding to 50% modulation of the FM signal is provided for easy level setting when tape recording FM broadcasts.
Specifications
Usable Sensitivity:
Mono :  11,2 dBf (2,0 µV)
Stereo :  22,7 dBf (7,5 µV)
50 dB Quieting Sensitivity:
Mono :  19,2 dBf (5,0 µV)
Stereo :  39,2 dBf (50 µV)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
Mono :  80 dB
Stereo :  77 dB
Frequency Response: 30 - 16,000 Hz ±1 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion:
Mono :  0,08%
Stereo :  0,1%
Capture Ratio:  1,0 dB
Alternate Channel Selectivity:  70 dB
Image Response Ratio:  100 dB
IF Response Ratio:  100 dB
Spurious Response ratio:  100 dB
AM Suppression:  65 dB
Stereo Separation:
At 1 kHz :  50 dB
At 10 kHz :  40 dB
Subcarrier Product Ratio:  80 dB
Output Level/Impednce
Fixed :  150 mV/5 k  Ω
Variable ;  0 -500 mV/5 k Ω
Power Consumption:  10 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  270 x 70 x 247 mm (10-5/8" x 2-3/4" x 9-3/4")
Weight:  3,5 kg (7 lb 11 oz)

Mitsubishi M-T01 cassette deck


In designing the cassette tape deck for our microcomponent series we have not been too concerned with reducing the size; instead, while maintaining the same attractive, warm champagne gold hairline finish we have designed it to the same dimensions as the M-A01 power amplifier
Front Loading Format
Rather than adopt the horizontal insert type of cassette loading often used on compact cassette formats ,  inconvenient for tape head cleaning and subject to tape snarl-ups, the M-T01 features frontal loading, with full tape visibility and a hinged tape head cover that protects the head assembly from dust and higes down for easy access.
Feather-Touch Microswitch Controls
For smooth and rapid switching between different operatingirectly. To go from fast rewind into the play mode  just press the appropriate feather touch microswitches; the changeover is almost instantaneous, with no tape spillage. All operations are just as simple and foolproof.
ASPS
Mitsubishi's automatic spacing pause system ASPS puts a few seconds of silent spacing between different music selections without having to alter recording levels or go out of the recording mode.
Closed-Loop Dual-capstan Drive
For the last word in stable tape drive, greatly reducing drop-outs and changes in level due to variations in tape tension over the heads the tape is held between two capstans and their corresponding pinch rollers on the take-up and supply sides, unlike the normal single-capstan plus pinch roller combination. The mechanism itself is mounted on a high precision die-cast metal base, and is highly resistant to vibration and other harmful influences. This, and a phase locked loop (PLL) with a quartz-crystal oscillator as the standard for controlling the speed of the DC servomotor, bring wow and flutter down to a completely negligible 0,05% WRMS. The recording/playback head is of sendust, with excellent magnetic and wear-resistant properties, and is largely responsible for the good frequency response.
Peak level Meters
The fast-response peak reading meters on the M-T01 make it easy to achieve recordings with the maximum of Signal-to-Noise ratio and the minimum of distortion by giving accurate indication of critical peak signal levels.
Specifications:
Drive mechanism:  Closed loop dual capstan system
Noise Reduction System:  Dolby noise reduction system
Tape Speed:  4,75 cm/sec (1-7/8"  IPS)
Recording System:  AC bias (85 kHz)
Erasing Systen:  AC erasing (85 kHz)
Tracks:  4-track, 2-channel
Playback Equalization
Normal Position :  3,180u sec/ 120 µ sec
Fe-Cr Position :  3,180u sec/ 70 µ sec
Special Position :  3,180u sec/ 70 µ sec
Input Level /Impedance
MIC :  0,3 mV/1,8 k Ω
Line :  100 mV/120 k Ω
Output level/Impedance
Line :  420 mV/22 k Ω
Headphones :  1,5 mW/8 Ω
Motors:  PLL DC servo motor;  DC governed motor
Magnetic Heads
Record/Playback :  Sendust alloy
Erase :  Ferrite
Wow and Flutter:  0,045% (WRMS) ±0,09% (Wp-p, DIN)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
Weighted (Dolby NR Out):  56 dB (RMS); 52 dB (DIN)
Weighted (Dolby NR In ) :  64 dB (RMS)
Frequency Response:
Normal Position :  30 Hz - 15 kHz (40 Hz to 13 kHz ±3 dB)
Fe-Cr Position :  30 Hz - 17 kHz (40 Hz to 15 kHz ±3 dB)
Soecial Position : 30 Hz - 17 kHz (40 Hz to 15 kHz ±3 dB)
Power Consumption: 20 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  270 x 140 x 246 mm (10-5/8" x 6-1/2" x 9-11/16")
Weight:  6,3 kg (14 lbs)

Meridian MFM tuner


Meridian Modular Tuner the MFM is designed to receive transmission on the VHF-FM band only. The tuner has six pre-settable stations which are selected with a single control knob.
The tuner is designed as a free-standing unit.
Three connections must be made to the tuner, power supply, audio output  (5-pin DIN), and aerial antenna input (unblanced 75 Ω).

Maridian have released ( 1986) an FM tuner, the MFM, to match their Component Amplifier System. Simplicity of operation, neat appearance and excellent sound quality are its main claims to fame. A two-box unit, the tuner uses a sparate mains transformer so it can be used as a "stand alone" item in other systems as well as in situ with its companions in the meridian range. Six preset stations are provided, with tuning via screw-driver-adjusted presets on the RH module. The selected frequency is displayed on a digital readout. 
Price of the MFM is £359

Meridian 504 tuner


The Meridian 504 FM
Tuner is the latest in a long line of Meridian tuners with a reputation for stunning sound quality.

The Meridian 504 FM Stereo Tuner combines major advances in audio and user interface design. It features a dual-gate MOSFET input to pull in distant stations, while the matched ceramic filters ensure fine selectivity to cope with more-crowded locations. A Walsh-function stereo decoder gives remarkable clarity and freedom from interference. The 504 has full remote control, can store up to 30 stations in memory showing their names for your convenience.
The eight-character display can be  pro- grammed to show station names for ease of acces. The 504 FM Stereo Tuner is a  wonder- full way for pop enthusiasts to hear new music; jazz lovers to hear rare, archival material; and classical aficionados to hear well-made live broadcasts. We invite you to consider it seriously.

Specifications:
Frequency Range:   87.0 - 108 MHz
Sensitivity:
Mono :  1.5 μV
Stereo :  23 μV
Ult. :  100 μV
Distortion :
Mono ;  less than  0.2%
Stereo :  less than  0.4%
Noise:  -70 dB.
Inputs and outputs
Unbalanced Antenna Imput:  FM 75 Ω
Analogue Output :  2 V
Communications : Two 5 pin 240º DIN
Construction:
Black textured enamel and glass finish
Dimensions (W x H x D):  88 x 321 x 332 mm (3,46 x 12,64 x 13.07 inch )
Weight:  6.4 kg (14 lbs)

Creek T40 tuner


The idea of an FM only tuner is to receive broadcasts over the air that can be described as having truly hifi performance. Only Frequency Modulation can offer this, so it is therefore not desirable to offer AM in a budget design.
The simple ergonomics of the T40 , the complex control, and advanced radio and audio circuitry within. An advanced digital frequency readout, and display brightness level couple to signal strength make the operation of the tuner as simple as possible, every effort has been made front panel. What is left can be descibed as functional, but it is in the search for the ultimate in the state of the art. Of tuner design which has made this product the bench mark at its price.
martinCollams in hifi Choice (february 1988) described the earlier 3140 model thus "Giving fine results for sensitivity, Signal-to-Noise, pilot tone and AM rejection, selectivity, and capture ratio, the RF side of this fine tuner is beyond reproach". The latest version, renumbered t40 has been further improved and has added facilities, such as variable output level control.
With press and public, acclaim from around the world the T40 has become a modern classic.

Specifications:
Tuning Range: 88 - 108 MHz
Sensitivity (50db s/nRatio)
Mono :  3 µV
Stereo :  35 µV
Ultimate Signal-to-Noise (CCIR/ARM/1 kHz ref.)
Mono :  74 dB
Stereo :  65 dB
Muting Threshold (RF Level):  4 µV
Selectivity(Alternate Channel):  10 dB
Pilot Tone rejection:
6 dB at 19 kHz
100 dB at 38 kHz
AM Rejection:  67 dB
Capture ratio:  1,3 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion 9100% mod. At 1khz)
Mono :  65 bd
Stereo :  60 dB
Frequency Response:  25 Hz - 16 kHz (-1 dB)
Stereo Separation:  30 dB (1 kHz, 100 µV)
Output Level:   0 - 1 V RMS (100% mod. Variable)
Aerial Inputs Antenna:  300 Ω (balanced); 75 Ω (unbalanced)
Dimensions (W x H x D):  420 x 64 x 165 mm
Weigh:  3 kg

Creek 6060 amplifier

The 6060 is a sophisticated integrated amplifier of the highest calibre. Designet with the aid of CAD facilities, the 6060 is capable of producing 65 watts of power from each channel. A wealth of useful features and facilities are provided to please the audiophile and music lover alike.
Advanced circuit design is evident throughout the 6060. a generously rated power supply with excellent rejection capability forms the heart of the amplifier, while fine signal handling capability within the important pre-amplifier circuitry, and careful attention to inter-stage matching, result in unsurpassed clarity and resolution.

Among the many user features to be found on the appealing new 6060 are:
Simultaneous record and play on all inputs
Comprehensive tape copy facilities
Switchable tone controls
Switchable A B speaker selection
Separate access to power amplifier input
Bridge mode facility to enable 200 watts of power in mono
Short circuit protection
Specifications:
Power Output
One Channel at 8 Ω :  65 watts
One Channel at 4 Ω :  90 watts 
T.H.D. (at rated output): less than 0,05% (1 kHz, 8 Ω)
Noise (Referenced to rated output at 1 kHz, A weighted) :
Disc  MM: 70 dB
Disc MC :  65 dB
Tuner/CD/Video/Tape :  90 dB
Separation (Input at 1 kHz): 
Disc  MM : 45 dB
Disc MC :  50 dB
Tuner/CD/Video/Tape :  50 dB
Inputs Sensitivity/Loading:
Disc MM:  2 mV / 47 k Ω
Disc MC :  0,1 mV / 100 Ω
Tuner/Video/Tape :  400 mV
CD :  850 mV
Dimensions (W x H x D) : 420 x 70 x 345 mm
Weight:  10 kg

Sanyo RD-5350 cassette deck

A front-loading Dolby cassette deck featuring: bias and equalization selectors for "normal", ferrichrome and chrome tapes; two calibrated VU meters; three peak record level indicators calibrated at 0 VU, +3 dB, +6 dB; automatic and of tape stop/disengage; time control through the pause mode that permits a timer-controlled start in the record mode; a record mute that turns off the input signal when the tape is driving in the record mode; a reset counter. The tape mechanism is one of the best we've seen in terms of loading, overall handling, and cleaning of the tape path. It's an excellent front loader for handling by young children.

The Sanyo RD-5350 Dolby cassette deck has one of the most advanced drive motors ever put in a tape machine. It's a new frequency generator DC motor with Phase Locked Loop speed control servo that actually checks and corrects for even the most infinitesimal speed variations 1,247 times every second.
This hair-splitting accuracy helps give the RD5350 one of the lowest  wow and flutter figures in the industry; 0,05% WRMS. And lets the drive system ignore line voltage fluctuations, and breeze right through even "sticky" cassettes without missing a beat.
Naturally, the RD-5350 has one of the most rugged, precision tape transports available today and high performaance electronics. As a result, you get superior specs like 30 -17,000 Hz response (±3 dB, CrO₂ tape) and 64 dB Signal-to-Noise ratio with Dolby. Which is more Hz and less noise than you'll find on the discs and broadcasts you tape.
You also get advanced featres like 3 peak indicating LED's (0, +3, and +6 VU), separate input and output level controls, a Record Mute button for erasing short sections of tape, and a timer standby feature  for taping programs when you're not around.
1,247 times a second this motor checks itself for perfect speed.
How it works - Built into RD-5350 motor is a 68 pole tacho generator that produces a series of pulses proportional  to the motor speed. In the Phase Locked Loop integrated circuit, these pulses are compared with the signal from the precision reference oscillator (1246,7 Hz) if even a singe pulse is found to be slightly out of phase, power to the motor  is adjusted by a econd integrated circuit to restore synchronization. This process takes place independent of fluctuations in load or AC line voltage.
Performance:
The playback frequency response from a standard test tape with a 50 to 10,000 Hz range measured +1,5/-0 dB. Using TDK-AD tape:
Without Dolby, the record/play frequency response measured +0,6/-1,8 dB from 40 to 14,000 Hz, down 2,5 dB at 35 and 15,000 Hz. Distortion at the meter-indicated 0-VU record level was 1,1% T.H.D. with 5 dB headroom to 3% T.H.D. The Signal-to-Noise ratio referenced to 0-VU record level was 49,5 dB.
With the Dolby active, the record/play frequency response measured +1,5/-2,5 dB from 35 to 13,000 Hz. Distortion and headroom remained the same. The Signal-to-Noise ratio referenced to 0-VU record level was 55 dB wideband; 59,5 dB narrowband.
Using Scotch Master III  Ferrichrome tape:
With the Dolby active, the record/play frequency response measured +0/-3 dB from 38 to 15,000 Hz.
Distortion at the meter-indicated 0-VU record level was 1,3% T.H.D. with 5 dB headroom to 3% T.H.D.
The Signal-to-Noise ratio referenced to 0-VU record level was 57 dB wideband; 65 dB narrowband.
Using Scotch Master II Chrome tape:
The record/play frequency response measured +0/-2,5 dB from 35 to 14,000 Hz.
Distortion at the meter-indicated 0-VU record level was 2% T.H.D. with 3 dB headroom to 3% T.H.D.
The Signal-to-Noise ratio referenced to 0-VU record level was 57 dB wideband; 65 dB narrowband.
The maximum output level corresponding to a 0-VU record level was nominally 620 mV
The peak record level indicator calibrations were precisely on the mark at 0-VU, -3 dB, +6 dB.
Wow and Flutter measured 0,09% with peaks to 0,15%
Overall Dimensions  (W x H x D):  16-5/8" x 6-1/8" x11-7/16"
Weight :  13,2 lbs

Toshiba PC-5460 cassette deck

The Toshiba PC-5460 cassette deck, with an all-sendust recording head. Dolby FM and Direct Access feather-touch controls
When you buy any of Toshiba's cassette decks, you can take excellent sound for garanted.
Toshibs PC-5460 , for example, has inaudible wow and flutter; just 0,05% WRMS. A high Signal-to-Noise ratio; 69 dB (±3 dB, Dolby On, CrO₂). And wide frequency response 20 - 18,000 Hz (FeCr).
But Toshiba goes beyond specs, to professional features for continued superior performance. Consider the 5460's All-Sendust recording head. It stands up to wear much better than hardened permalloy. And it's noot susceptible to the "chipping" that can occur with ferrite heads.
Then, get your hands on our Direct Access feather-touch controls. The merest touch allows you to switch from one function to another without pressing the Stop button or jamming the tape.
And the Toshiba 5460's front-loading cassette compartment has an oil-damped soft eject mechanism, for smooth and convenient operation.
Of course, almost every cassette deck has Dolby these days. But few have Dolby FM as well. Toshiba does, with a switchable MPX filter circuit. So you can feed Dolby FM broadcasts through the 5460 to get cleaner sound. Whether or not you're recording.

The 5460 tape transport is DC servomotor-controlled.
And you'll appreciate the three-function meter plus LED peak indicator. And our new edit/fade control
Naturally, the 5460 has all the standards as well. Like three-position bias and equalization switches. Mike/line mixing. And circuitry to accommodate an accessory timer.

Specifications:
Input Sensitivity/Impedance:
Mic:  0,25mv/10 k Ω
Line :  70 mV/50 k Ω
Output level/Impedance:
DIN :  0,5 v/ 50 k Ω
Line :  0,5 V/50 k Ω
Headphones :  8 Ω
Frequency Response
Fe Tape :  25 Hz - 14,000 Hz
Cr Tape :  20 Hz - 17,000 Hz
Dimensions (W x H x D):  420 x 151 x 281 mm
Weight:  5,5 kg

Akai AP-B1 turntable


Stereo Belt Drive turntable with Auto return

Specifications:
Drive System:  Belt drive, Auto-return
Motor:  DC Motor
Speed:  3-1/3 and 45 rpm
Wow and Flutter:  0,05% (WRMS)
Rumble:  65 dB (DIN-B)
Platter:  aluminium alloy diecast
Tonearm:  Static balanced, Strait type
Effective Arm length:  215 mm
Stylus pressure Adjustment Range:  9 to 2,5 grams
Applicable Cartridge Weight:  5 to 9 grams
Arm Lifter:  Oil damped
Overhang:  15 mm
Cartridge: Moving Magnet
Output Voltage:  2,5 mV (DIN)
Channel Separation:  more thna 20 dB
Optimal Stylus pressure:  2 grams
Power Requirements:110 - 120 V, 220 - 240 V, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  3 W
Dimensione (W x H x D):  440 x 107 x 345 mm (  17,3" x 4,2" x 13,6")
Weight:  3,4 kg (7,5 lbs)

Pioneer PL-A35 turntable



A fully automatic, belt-driven, professional-quality stereo turntable utilizing two precision motors and complete with induced magnet type cartridge.
The Pioneer PL-A353 is the perfect stereo turntable for the man about to invest in his first set of hi-fi components. But so precise and advanced are its features that an old hi-fi hand will more than feel at home with it. Designed for ease-of-operation as well as precision, the PL-A35 is fully automatic - from the playing of the record to auto-repeat and tonearm return at the end of the record. You'll never touch  the tonearm, your records get extra long-life protection. Additionally, this Pioneer unit features manual operation if you prefer even more precision. It has a double motor system for smooth, stable operation, comes complete with cueing device, anti-skating device, induced magnet type cartridge and diamond stylus. At its price, you'll look a long time to find its equal in performance and reliability. Because Pioneer performance and reliability is not easily duplicated.

Features
Professional performance yet effortless operation
This Pioneer model combines studio-quality performance with the operational ease of a fully automatic. Simply flick the function lever to Start position once, anf the tonearm will be automatically moved over and lowered onto the record and, at the end of the disc, will return automatically to its rest. One-touch Cut and Repeat features let you interrupt and repeat any rcord freely.
Synchronous motor and belt drive
The turntable platter is driven by a synchronous 4-pole motor of excellent stability independent from power voltage fluctuations. The drive belt is precision-finished on both sides, a feature that helpes reduce wow and flutter to an absolute minimum. (The tonearm is moved by a separate, geared motor.)
Anti-skating device
Model PL-A35 features an effective countermeasure against skating (excess pressure of the stylus against the inner wall of the record groove). The anti-skating device keeps the stylus correctly balanced in the groove and assures perfect tracking.
Directly readable tracking force adjustment
The tracking force is adjustable over a wide range so that practically any cartridge (with standard EIA plug) can be accommodated. The balance weight is equipped with a gauge for easy, direct reading of the tracking force.
High quality magnet-type cartridge supplied
The supplied cartridge, Pioneer model PC-50, is a magnetic type of very true-to-the-record sound quality and a frequency response from 10 to 25,000 Hz. Its stylus is a durable diamond type.
"free Hinge" Dust cover
The transparent dust cover is held by spring-loaded hinges and can be arrested in any desired position. If desired, it can be removed altogether.
Oiled walnut base
Adds an extra touch of value and elegance to your stereo installation.

Specifications
Motor:  4-pole synchronous motor (for platter drive), gear motor (for pick-up drive)
Speed:  33-⅓ and 45 rpm
Turntable Platter:  12" aluminum alloydie-cast
Wow and Flutter:  less than 0,10% (WRMS)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  better than 47 dB
Tonearm:  Static balance type pipe-arm S-shaped
Effective Arm Length:  221 mm
Cartridge:  PC-50 (induced magnet type)
Stylus:  PN-50 (0,5 mil diamond)
Frequency Response:  10 to 25,000 Hz
Channel Separation:  better than 25 dB (1,000 Hz)
Output Voltage:  3 mV (at 1,000 Hz , 5cm/sec)
Load Impedance:  50 k
Dynamic Complance:  12 x 10¯⁶cm/dyne (at 100 Hz)
Tracking Force:  1,5 to 2,1 grams
Power Requirement:  110-130, 220-240 V
Power Consumption:  19 watts (max)
Dimensions (W x H x D):  480 x 183 x 415 mm (18-7/8" x 7-3/16" x 16-3/8")
Weight:  9 kg (19 lb 14 oz) net

Dual 604 turntable


The Dual 604 is direct drive turntable
You may have noticed that most turntable stories begin and end with the drive system. The tonearm is more or less an afterthought. But not with Dual. Because the tonearm can make a big difference in how records sounds and how long they last. Which is why Dual is very serious about tonearms in our article.
Let's consider the 604 tonearm

The straight-line tubular design provides maximum rigidity with minimum mass. The four-point gimbal centers and pivots the tonearm precisely where the vertical and horizontal axes intersect. And the counter balance houses, two specially-tuned anti-resonance filters that absorb parasitic resonances originating in the tonearm /cartridge system and chassis.
Operation is semi-automatic, with another uniqueDual difference: the machanical sensor. Switch it in and you feel when the stylus is positioned precisely over the 12" and 7" lead-in brooves. At the end of play, the tonearm lifts and returns to its post, and the motor shuts off Automatically.
Now let's talk about the direct-drive system. It employs a newly developed DC electronic motor, with speed regulated by a CMOS integrated circuit and digital reference circuit. Spped accuracy is within 0,001 percent. Wow and flutter are less than 70 dB, as with any great drive system, that's far beyond audibility.
But the important story with any turntable is simply this. The drive system merely turns the record. It's the tonearm that plays it.

Specifications
Drive:  Electronically Regulated Direct-drive system, Dual EDS 500
Speeds:  33-⅓ and 45 rpm, electronically adjustable
Time From Start to Rated Speed:  2 - 2,5 s at 33-⅓ rpm
Pitch Control:  Separate for both speeds, each adjustable by means of variable resistor with calibration scale of regulation; 10%
Speed Control (Monitoring):  with illuminated stroboscope for platter speeds 33-⅓ and 45 rpm, adjustable to 50 or 60 Hz
Sensitivity of the Illuminated Strobe:  6 division marking per minute at 50 Hz, 7,2 division marking per minute at 60 Hz
Platter:  Non-magnetic, dynamically balanced
Platter Diameter/Weight:  300 mm / 1,3 kg
Wow and Fluuter:  according to DIN 45 507 (GIS) less than ±0,06%
Rumble (DIN 45 500): 
Unweighted :  better than 45 dB
Weighted :  better than 65 dB
Tonearm:  Torsionally rigid tubular aluminum tonearm in low-friction four-point gimbal suspeension, tonearm counterbalance with two mechanical anti-resonance filters
Effective Length of Tonearm:  222 mm
Offset Angle:  25° 20'
Tangential Tracking Error:  0,16°/cm
Tonearm Bearing Friction
Vertical :  less than 0,07 mN (0,007 g)
Horiziontal :  less than 0,16 mN (0,016 g )
Stylus Pressure:
From 0 to 30 mN ( 0 to 3 g) infinitely variable with 1 mN ( 1/10g) calibrations
From 0 to 16 mN (0 to 1,5 g) operable from 2,5 mN (0,25 g) stylus pressure up
Power Input:  apprx. 2 watts, Motor at playing operation less than 50 mW
Power Supply:  110 V -125 V, 220 V - 240 V, AC 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  at Start 25 mA at Play 15 mA (220 V, 50 Hz); at Start 65 mA at Play 25 mA (110 V, 60 Hz)
Weight:  4,6 kg

Infinity ES-1 headphones



The most acurate headphones ever created. That was the goal.
When Infinity's scientists set out to develop such a stereo component, we determined to start from the highest achievement to date in headphone reproduction - electrostatics - and to remove the previous limitations of electrostatics.
The ES-1 Headphone System demonstrates that accomplishment. And no longer are the finest headphones any less accurate than the finest speakers.
An altogether new diaphragm material is employed in these headphones because it follows dynamic changes much faster and more precisely than the polyester others use. This extremely low-mass material, called Polyurethin, is so responsive as to provide a transient fullness impossible to achieve in the past.
 as a result, Infinity's electrostatic headphones deliver a frequency response of 20 to 25,000 Hz ±2 dB; at a sound pressure level of 100 dB; they show total harmonic distortion of less than 0,3%; their maximum output is a full 118 dB SPL; the realism of their reproduction is startling.
The ES-1 Headphone System consists of one headphone set and the walnut-enclosed adaptor containing power supply and matching transformers. Front-panel output connectors accommodate two headsets; an optional second set is available from your Infinity dealer.
The power supply is to be connected between your amplifier and speakers. Front panel switchingwill let you leave your headphones connected whether you are listening to them or to your speakers. Power supply is also provided with a fast-acting protection circuit to switch off either channel or both in case of overloading that might otherwise damage the unit. A re-set button on the front panel easily puts the circuit back into operation.
Infinity Electrostatic Headphones operate in the push-pull mode, that is, the power amplifier's signal is boosted by the transformer, and constant bias (DC) voltage sets up electrostatic fields which push and pull the diaphragm between two grids.
Infinity coats the Polyurethin of the diaphragms precisely evenly with conductive chemical compounds. The material and the process deliver three benefits:
A high "ratio of extension", the ability to respond to the smallest signal variations and return instantaneously to original tension. Infinity has achieved a marked improvement over polyester, which is 20 times heavier than Polyurethin.
Reduction virtually to zero of the distortion that can be caused when energy is reflected at the suspended edge of a headphone diaphragm.
Voltage spread evenly over the entire diaphragm surface so it will move as a perfect piston with no "hot spots" moving sooner or more than other portions.

As with every Infinity product, the purpose and the result of our using the most advanced technology is to deliver the original, uncolored sound of music exactly as recorded. In the case of the ES-1, you experience a spacious, open quality. Not only can you hear sounds around you (baby's cry, doorbell), but in addition, the music seems to be spread naturally all around you, and not focused unnaturally inside your head.
Your private listening experience with Infinity Electrostatic Headphones will be gratifyingly comfortable, supremely accurate, and totally musical.

Specifications
Frequency Response:  20 Hz to 25,000 Hz ±2 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion:  less than 0,3% at 100 dB SPL
Sensitivity:  98 dB SPL at input of 2 volts at 1000 Hz
Maximum Output:  118 dB SPL
Maximum Input:  50 watts at 100 Hz
Source Impedance:  4 to 16
External Power Requirements:  117 or 220 volts AC 50/60 cycles, ,01 watts
Headphone Weight:  9 ounces
Headband Adjustment:  11-1/2 to 13-1/2 inches
Headphone Cord Length:  98 inches
Adaptor Size (W x H x D):  5-1/4" x 3" x 7-1/4"
Adaptor Input Cord:  33-1/2 inches
Adaptor AC Cord:  67 inches