What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

Acoustic Research AR-925E

Classic Series by Acoustic Research AR-925E
3 way floor type speaker system of the vartical series which inherited the design philosophy of AR-9 and adopted the almost same composition as AR-91. 

The 25cm corn type Woofer is carried in low-pass.  The unit of a 19 mm dome shape is carried in the 38 mm dome shape and the high region in the inside region. 
The same thing as AR-91 is adopted and these units put in the magnetic fruid of the shape of colloid which is tinged with the magnetism of NASA development between the voice coil and the yoke, and they have improved the input-proof while they aim at distorted reduction from a central axis as a structure as for which Bure is not. 
Furthermore, the acoustic blanket which is a special sound-absorbing material was attached to the surroundings of a unit, and sound quality degradation by reflective sound is prevented. 
 A "17AWG sky core coil", a "computer class electrolytic condenser", "input-proof [ unguided quantity ] ceramic resistance", etc. are used for the element of a network part. 

The acoustic suspension system of AR tradition is adopted as the enclosure. 
By this system, air can achieve the duty of a spring by carrying out full sealing of the core, compliance can be enlarged, and it is possible to make low-pass resonance frequency lower. 
Moreover, walnut tone vinyl chloride finishing is given to the exterior. 

System type:   3 ways, 3 speaker acoustic suspension system,  floor-standing
Drive Unit
Woofer: 250 mm cone type
Midrange: 38 mm dome shape
Tweeter: 19 mm dome shape
Frequency Response:   32 Hz - 30 kHz
Low-Pass Frequency:  44 Hz,  -3 dB
System Q:  0,7
Output Sound Pressure Level;  87 dB/W/m
Impedance:  4 ohms (a minimum of 3.2 ohms)
Continuous Max. Input:  125 W
Maximum Input:  200 W
Crossover Frequency:  700 Hz,  7.5 kHz
Level Control
Mid Frequency:  Three-step switching
High Frequency:  Three-step switching
Content Volume:  46,8 l
Dimensions (WxHxD):  356 x 797 x 290 mm
Weight:  21 kg 

JVC AL-FQ555 turntable

Quartz-Locked Fully Automatic Direct-Drive Turntable

Special Features:
Double-Servo Quartz control and Super FG Servo
Coreless DC FG Servo direct-drive motor
Low-mass straight tonearm, with low-center of graity support
New high-stability cabinet support system and large  insulators for higher resistance to vibration and acoustic feedback
Fully automatic operation with automatic record size and speed selector
Arm cueing control up front
Plug-in cartridge connector
Space-efficient dust cover
JVC Compu Link Control System for interactive operation - ready for remote control

Motor and Platter
Motor : Quartz Lock DC servomotor
Drive System:  Direct Drive
Speeds:  33-1/3 and 45 rpm
Wow and Flutter:  o,o4% (WRMS) 0,05% (DIN)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  76 dB (DIN-B)
Platter:  die-cast aluminum alloy
Dimenisons :  308 mm (12-3/16")
Type:  Statically balanced straight tubular arm with JVC devekoped Tracking Hold (TH) balancing system
Effective Arm length:  220 mm
Overhang:  15 mm
Applicable Cartridge Weight:  5,9 grams
Type:  Moving Magnet (MD 1045C)
Stylus:  0,6 mil conical diamond for DT-45
Optimum Tracking Force:  1,25 grams
Force Output:  2,5 mV (1 kHz 50 mm/sec. Lateral)
Frequency Response:  10 Hz to 25,000 kHz
Separation::  25 dB (1 kHz)
Load Impedance: 47 k Ω
Compliance:  8 x 10¯⁶ cm/dyne (100 hHz dynamic)
Tracking Ability:  80 µm at 315 Hz
Power Source/ Consumption:refer  to the table on back
Dimensions) Stylu, 435 x 108 x 359  mm
Weight: 4,6 kg  a (10,2 lbs)

Pioneer PL-51 turntable

Pioneer PL-51
A professional direct-drive stereo turntable with sophisticated DC servo phono motor and highly-sensitive S-shaped tonearm.

The ideal rotation transferring mechanism in any stereo turntable is the direct-drive phono motor. This highly advanced turntable from Pioneer, the PL-51, is the first in its practical price bracket to employ this ultra-slow running motor. Use of this motor means that the turntable platter is directly connected to the shaft of the drive motor, and thus the PL-51 operates without the use of idlers or belts as do more conventional turntables. The motor rotation is the turntable rotation, and the result is extremely quiet, stable turntable rptation at all times. The motor employed in the PL-51 is the brushless DC servo-controlled type, compactly designed. Turntable rotation is then kept stable by the use of an electronic servo circuit that employs semiconductors to significantly reduce wow and flutter  to less than 0,06% WRMS. Equally important, signal-to-noise ratio of the PL-51 is better than 55 dB, a fine performance figure that may be compared favorably with any other turntable on the market. Then, coupled with the direct drive mechanism, this Pioneer  turntable also uses a highly-sensitive  and stable S-shaped tonearm, perfect for the light-tracking cartridges now in wide use, or for the new four-channel recordings. Complete with a solidly constructed wooden cabinet and solid base with large insulators, the PL-51 offers more performance and value than you've ever thought possible in its price range. Hear it first and compare.

Motor and Turntable
Motor: Brushless DC servo-controlled motor
Semiconductors:  12 Transistors, 19 Diodes
Drive System:  Direct-drive
Speeds:  33-1/3 and 45 rpm (electronic speed change)
Speed Control Range:  within ±2% (individual control for 33-1/3 and 45 rpm)
Wow and Flutter:  less than 0,06% WRMS
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  more than 55 dB
Turntable Platter:  310 mm (12-1/4") aluminum alloy die-cast
Weight: 1,4 kg (3lb 1 oz)
Type:  Static-balanced, S-shaped pipe arm (with plug-in head shell)
Effective Arm Length:  221 mm (8-11/16")
Overhang:  15,5 mm (5/88 ")
Usable Cartridge Weight:  4 to 14 g
Additional Features:  Anti-skating control; lateral balancer; stylus-pressure direct read-out counter weight.
Power Requirements:  120 V 60 Hz  or 110, 120, 130, 220, 240 V 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  5,2 watts
Dimensions (W x H x D):  480 x 185 x 410 mm (18-29/32" x 7-9/32" x 16-5/32")
Weight:  19,5 kg (23 lb 2 oz)

Pioneer PL-71 turntable

Direct Drive System
No belt or idlers. The DC servo motor drives the platter directly, resulting in lowest possible vibrations transmitted to the tonearm. the result is a new height of turntable performance plenty for the most demanding audio enthusiast.

Electronic Servo Control
Turntable revolution speed is affected by many factors, including ambient room temperature, etc. which cannot be predicted or corrected by motor performance alone. this electronic circuit comes into play at the touch of a button, letting you adjust the speed ±2% during either 33-1/3 or 45 rpm play.
Precision Tracking Sensitive Anti-Skating System
Playing 4-channel records requires extra tonearm precision, and the PL-71 delivers. Not on;y with an exactly-balanced . the result is stable tracking over every part of the record for brilliant response from the first note to the last.

Convenient Auxiliary Features
The tonearm is raised and lowered by Arm Elevetor, saving both stylus and record wear. the stylus overhange can be adjusted precisely with thw overhang gauge. The stylus overhang can be adjusted precisely with the overhang gauge. the semitransparent dust cover is held by spring-loaded hinges and can be arrested in any desired position. If desired, it can be removed altogether.
Eye-Appeal Design
The cabinet is set off the natural beauty of selected walnut, with a smart black base plate. All controls are grouped on the right  for easy one-hand operation

Phono Motor and Turntable Section
Motor:  Brushless DC servo Direct-drive motor
Speed:  33-1/3 and 45 rpm
Wow and Flutter:  0,05% (WRMS) or less
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  60 dB or more
Turntable Platter:  310 mm diameter, Aluminum Alloy
Tonearm Section
Tone Arm Type:  Static balance, S-shape, pipe arm
Effective Arm Length:  224 mm
Overhang:  14,5 mm
Usable Cartridge Weight:  4 g to 32 g
Power Requirements:  AC 110, 120, 130, 220 and 240 V 60 or 50 Hz
Power Consumption:  5,2 W max
dimensions (W x H x D) : 480 x 185 x 410 mm (18-7/8" x 7-1/4" x 16-1/8")
Weight:  11 kg (24 lb 3 oz)
Anti-skating force control
Lateral balancer
Hinges (free adjustable)
Large-size shock absorbers
Arm elevator
Height-adjustable arm rest
Speed fine
Adjuster (33-1/3, 45 rpm, for use in turntable speed adjustment with stroboscope and strobolight)

Micro Seiki DD-5E

Micro Seiki direct drive turntable  model DD-5E

Turntable Section
Drive System:  Direct Drive with DC servo motor
Rotation:  33-1/3 and 45 rpm
Speed Fine Adjustment Range:  ±6% of rated speed (half a musical Pitch)
Platter:  diecast aluminium
Diameter :  310 mm
Weight :  1,5 kg
Wow and Flutter:  less than 0,03%
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  more than 60 dB
Tonearm Section
Type:  Static Balance
Effective Length:  222 mm
Overhang:  15 mm
Offset Angle:  21°
Max. Tracking Error: less than 1,5
Acceptable Carteidge Weight:  4 - 10,5 grams
Power Requirement:  110, 117, 220, 240 V 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption :  5,4 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  466 x 142 x 342 mm (18-3/8" x 5-5/8" x 13-1/2")
Weight:  8,2 kg (18,0 lbs)

Sansui SC-737

Sansui SC-737
Dolby System Stereo Cassette Deck with M-C ferrite Head
Sansui feels so confident about the quality of this unusually fine cassette deck that we invite you to compare its performance and sound with that of any open-reel deck, even one of our own. That's a bold statement, particularly from a company known for its extreme concern for both the electronic specifications and actual tonal characteristics of its audio products.
To back it up; the SC-737 delivers a frequency response of 35 to 24,000 Hz ±3 dB; the built-in Dolby Type-B noise reductionreduction system allows noise reduction effect of more than 8 dB, the newly designed tape transport mechanism provides a wow and flutter factor of less than 0,11%. One of the first things you'll notice is the unusual size of the SC-737.  this allows sufficient space for the newly developed cassette tape transort mechanism of open-reel-performance quality, the advanced Dolby and all the sophisticated solid-state circuitry designed specifcally for this deck.

Feather-touch keyboard controls resist damage and wear. A built-in lock prevents accidental switching of mode. An automatic electro-optical shut-off device protects tape and moving parts. Hysteresis synchronous reel and capstan motor is unaffected by fluctuations in popwer. Sansui developed Magni-Crystal ferrite head with super-hard, mirror-like surface eliminates dropout and fluctuatio of high frequency signals.  And here's  a unique  feature: a third microphone input with separate recording level control is provided for center mic mixing. Other professional extras include oversized VU meters and separate peak level indicator, an improved 19 kHz Multiplex FM filter for FM recording, "radar" tape travel indicator, tape selector  ( normal, LH/cro2), 3-digit tape counter, no-click pause button, switchable voltage/cycle for international use, headphone jack , DIN and RCA-type input/ output jacks and easy-to-clean, easy-to-use top panel displays and attractive wooden cabinet.

High-Density Magni-Crystal Ferrite Record/Play Head
Record-Playback Preamplifier
Photoelectric Sensor Shut-Off
Tape Selector Switch
Peak level Indicator and Professional VU Meters
Center-Channel Microphone Mixing
Tape Travel Radar Indicator
Cut-Core Transformer

Track System:  4-track 2-channel record/playback
Tape Standard:  philips Cassette standard
Tape Speed:  4,8 cm/sec 91-7/8 ips)
Heads:  record/Playback head; Erase head (ferrite head)
Motor:  Hysteresis synchronous type
Tape Driving System:  belt driving system
Wow and Flutter:  within 0,11 (WRMS)
Tape Speed Accuracy:  within 75 sececonds (C-60)
Frequency Response (Rec/Pb):
Normal tape :  30 - 13,000 Hz (35 - 11,000 Hz ±3 dB)
Chromium Tape :  30 -16,000 Hz (35 - 14,000 Hz ±3 dB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 
Chromium Tape (Dolby Out):  better than 50 dB (weighted)
Dolby Noise Reduction Effect :  better than 8 dB (above 5 kHz)
Channell Separation:  better than 38 dB 91 kHz)
Erasure Factor:  more than 60 dB (1 kHz)
Input Sensitivity/Impedance (0 VU, 1 kHz):
Mic (L. R.) :  0,5 mV/10 k Ω
Mic (center) :  0,5 mV/10 k Ω
Line :  70 mV/100 k Ω
DIN :  14 mV/30 k Ω
Output Level (0 VU, 1 kHz):
Line :  0,56 V
DIN :  0,56 V
Bias Frequency:  85 kHz Nominal
Indicators:  Tape Run, Dolby NR, Record, peak level
Power Voltage :  100,17, 220, 240 V 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  22 W (rated)
Semiconductors:  41 Transistors, 2 FETs, 2 Zener Diodes, 17 Diodes, 6 Varistors, 1 Cds Cell
Dimensions (W x H x D):  464 x 121 x 294 mm (18-1/2" x 4-3/4" x 11-3/26")
Weight:  8,1 kg (17,8 lbs ) net

Akai GXC-36D

Stereo Cassette Tape Deck

Cassette recordings that rival reel-to-reel performance - that's what Akai's new GXC-36D delivers. Made possible with Akai's exclusive GX (glass and cystal) Head. There's even an Over-Level Suppressor Switch to limit high recording level distortion. And other impressive features that include a Tape Selector Switch, Tape Run Lamp, Pause Control, Direct Function Change Control, and a 3-digit Counter.

Put it to the hearing test.
In our ever constant pursuance of more perfect sound reproduction, we invented the incomperable GX Head. The application of this extraordinary head to our superior enginered cassette machines results in the upgrading of cassette sound to professional rell-to-reel performance. With the GX Head focused-field recording system, high frequency signals can be recorded and played back with perfect clarity. Review the features and specifications of this new cassette deck and then "put it to the hearing test". We are confident that you will be delighted.

Track System:  4-track 2-channel stereo system
Motor:  Induction Type Motor
Tape Speed:  1-7/8 ips
Wow And Flutter:  less than 0,12% WRMS
Frequency Response: 
40 Hz to 17,000 Hz using chromium dioxide tape
40 Hz to 15,000 Hz using low noise tape
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  better than 48 dB
One GX recording/playback head
One erase head
Fast Forward & Rewind Time:  within 65 seconds using a C-60 type cassette tape
Output Jacks:
Line :  0,78 V (0 dB); required load impedance :  more than 200 k Ω
Phone :  30 mVat 8 Ω
Input jack:
Microphone :  0,5 mV/ 4,7 k Ω
Line :  70 mV/200 k Ω
DIN Jack :  0,5V/30 mV (high)/ 3 mV (low)
Semi-conductors:  21 Transistors; 12 Diodes
Power Consumption:  20 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  410 x 115 x 223 mm (16,1" x 4,6" x 8,8")
Weight:  5,3 kg (11,7 lbs)

Quad II Integrated Amplifier

The Quad II-Classic Integrated
The rekindled interest in 2 channel analogue hi-fi been remarkable to witness. The popularity of vinyl has grown steadily over the last years and now represents a significant proportion amongst real music enthusiasts. Quad has been at the forefront of this trend with its development of some of the world's most stunning amplifiers  loudspeakers and phono stages. Creating a compact audiophile integrated solution for LP and Vintage Hi-End Audio lovers while working in collaboration with one of the industry's edteemed legendry figures, Tim DeParavicini.

Through his contemporary designs based on Qad's novel amplifier technology developed over half a century ago for his invention of the first Quad II Mono Amplifier introduced in 1953, our classic range of amplifier and speaker componenets represent far more than a nostalgic trip down memory lane. Each product represents as significant a design statement as their original counterparts.

The new Quad II Classic Integrated  Amplifier is perfectly balanced and completely integrated amplifier system to resolve system matching and offer exceptional performance nd value within a relatively compact and classically styled chassis.

Performance as you would expect from one of the most famous names in hi-fi, is nothing short of breattaking. The 25 watt per channel specified, belies their power and ability to drive even the most difficult loads. The remarkable output transformer design is characterized through its speed, agility and ability to convey the genuine passion of live performnce.

Design and Engineering
The KT-66 output valves, in push-pull configuration are visually stunning, even when safely secured within the cage tht protects them. Each valve produces around 25 watts per channel output in "Pure ClassA" which allows a suebrbly refined sound that appropriately matches modern as well as contemporary loudspeakers.

The package had to retainn the retro look of it famous preamplifier predecessor with th epower amplifier and transformers blended into a modern compact look. It has an understated elegance which lies beneath its smooth curves and lustrous finish because it uses a circuit dating back over fifty years to the time when vacumm tubes ruled the electronics industry and peter Walker was considered by many to be the master of audiophile design.

All Quad products are expected to last a lifetime - even longer. Many Quad customers still derive immense pleasure listening to products built over fifty years ago. The new Quad II Classic Integrated Amplifier is no exception, and with periodic servicing and a caring hand, you can expect its performance to continue for decades to come.

The Quad II Classic Integrated Amplifier operates in Pure Pentode (Beam Tetrode) output with partial cathode loading, this being more linear than so called ultralinear. It is a pure Class A operation, whereas its push pull operation's efficiency can only rach 50% max and its power supply is the usual capacitor filter with diode bridge rectifier, AC 6,3 volts heaters to the valves that is shared between both channels.

Equipped with a bi polar transistor phono amplifier that uses 4 transistors per channel with low feedback to provide correct RIAA equalisation. Also has a gain switch for moving coil caartridges, 0,25 mV at 1 kHz , a circuit which operates from a regulated 36 V derived directly from th emain HT valve. It ensures a very high overload performance from rcords.

The phono circuit is housed in a shielded compartment providing low noise RF proofing within th emain package.

Amplification Process
The Quad II Classic Integrated Amplifier output is 25 watt per channel  Integrated Amplifier had to obey Peter Walker's Philosophy  of cathode loading of the output stage and simplicity of design.
Upon Input, a selector switch routes the required signal to the volume control then on the first of 3 small driver valves. This first valve is an ECC83 acting as a differential balance circuit that is a phase slitter.
The output going into a pair of ECC88 valves that both operate as a cascode circuit for high gain and wide bandwidth directly drives the output valves (KT 66) via capacitors.
The circuit had to have high gain than a normal power amplifier to offer a nominal 250 mV input sensitivity on the various inputs.
Push pull feedback is arranged from the cathodes of the output back to the ECC88 valves to provide low distortion and noise with consistent performance.

Stereo Power Output:  25 W per channel into 8 Ω
Total Harmonic Distortion:  0,06% (at 15W &700 kHz )
Signal-to-Noise ratio:  better than -95 dB (ref 25 W into 8 Ω)
Frequency Response:  20 Hz - 20 kHz +0 dB -0,5 dB
Crosstalk: better than 75 dB
Gain :  34 dB
Noise:  -98 dB (275 mV input)
Valve Type:  4 x KT66; 4 x ECC88; 2 x ECC83
Input Channel:  3 x Line Level; 1 x MM/MC Phono and Tape monitor
Dimensions (W x H x D):  200 x 310 x 380 mm

Kenwood KR-1000

Computerized Hi-Speed DC Receive

Program Mode Commander memory flowchart display
Multi-functional weekly program clock/audioo timer
7-band digital graphic equalizer and mic mixing
Quartz synthesizer scan tuning, 6 FM/6 AM preset station recall
Digital volume control and bi-directional dubbing
Mic. Mixing
Hi-speed, DC, Zero switching amplifier
120 W/channel RMS, 8 ohms, 20 Hz -20 kHz, o,1% T.H.D.

Audio Section
Power Output:  120 wattsper channel, minimum RMS, both channel driven at 8 Ω from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz with no more than 0,01% Total Harmonic Distortion
Both Channel Driven
Into 8 Ω at 1,000 Hz :  150 W + 150 W
Into 4 Ω at 1,000 Hz :  130 W + 130 W
Dynamic Power Output at 8 Ω :  460 W
Total Harmonic Distortion (20 Hz -20 kHz from tape):
Rated power into 8 Ω :  0,01%
1 watt power  into 8 Ω :  0,005%
Intermodulation Distortion (60 Hz :7 kHz = 4:1 SMPTE)
Rated power into 8 Ω :  0,005%
Slew Rate :  ±150 V/µsec
Rise Time :  1,2 µsec
Damping Factor (at 1 kHz into 8 Ω):  75
Input Sensitivity/Impedance:
Phono :  2,5 mV/50 k Ω
Tape, AUX :  150 mV/50 k hm
MIC :  2,5 mV/50 k Ω
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (A weighted):
Phono :  82 dB for 2,5 mV input;  88 dB for 5,0 mV input
Tape, AUX :  105 dB for 150 mV input
MIC :  72 dB for 2,5 mV input
Maximum Phono Input Levelat 1,000 Hz :  150 mV(RMS, T.H.D. 0,03%)
Frequenct response:
Phono RIAA Standard Curve:  20 Hz to 20 kHz ±0,3db
Tape, AUX :  3 Hz to 270,00 Hz _3 dB
Tone Control: 7-Band graphic Equalizer
60 Hz, 160 Hz, 400 Hz, 1 kHz, 2,5 kHz, 6 kHz, 15 kHz :  ±10 dB at each frequency
Loudness Contour (vol _30 dB):  +10 dB at 100 Hz
Low Filter :  18 Hz at 6 dB/oct
High Filter :  5 kHz at 6 dB/oct
Output level/Impedance
Tape Rec Out
PIN :  150 mV/1 k Ω
DIN :  30 mV/80 k Ω
FM Tuner Section
Usable Sensitivity:  10,3 dBf (1,8 µV)
50 dB Quieting Sensitivity
Mono :  16,1 dBf (3,5 µV)
Stereo :  35,6 dBf (35 µV)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio at 65 dBf
Mono :  76 dB
Stereo :  70 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion at 1,000 Hz
Mono :  0,09%
Stereo ;  0,1%
Frequency response:  30 Hz ot 15,000 Hz +0,5 dB -1,0 dB
Capture Ratio:  1,0 dB
Image Rejection ratio:  80 dB (98 MHz)
Spurious Response ratio:  90 sb (98 MHz)
IF Response Ratio:  100 dB (98 MHz)
Alternate Channel Selectivity
Wide ;  30 dB at ±300 kHz
Narrow :  60 dB at ±300 kHz
AM Suppression Ratio:  60 dB
Stereo Separatio Ratio (Wide)
At 1,000 Hz :  50 dB
At 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz :  37 dB
Subcarrier product Ratio:   65 dB
Antenna Impedenca:  300 Ω balanced and 75 unbalanced
FM Frequency Range:  88 MHz to 108 MHz
Am Tuner Section
Usable Sensitivity:  14 µV
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  50 dB
Image Rejection:  40 dB
Selectivity:  45 dB
Power Consumption: 
700 watts at full power
120 watts at no signal
AC Outlets: Switched 2, Unswitched 1
Dimensions (W x H x D):550 x 155 x 443 mm (21-21/32" x 6-3/32" x 17-7/16")
New Weight:  16 kg (35,3 lbs)

Royd Minstrel

The Minstrel fulfils that essential requirement - it allows you to enjoy your music to the full. Available in a stylish range of finishes, The Minstrel provides high quality listening at a realistic price.
The Minstrel is a versatile loudspeaker which may b eused on shelves, wall mounted or floorstanding, for which a base complete with spikes is available.
Designed for use with a very wide range of amplification, it is equally at home with a digital or analogue source.

The Minstrel is also unfussy as to its placement in the listening room and is therefore the ideal answer to accoustically difficult locations.
The new side ported reflex design allows for the sdjustment of bass response by choosing to have the ports face each other or a side wall.
The Minstrel benefits from Royd's ongoing research and development program and builds on the technical advances incorporated  in the acclaimed Royd Abbot. In addition to the use of mass damping and resistive bracing.

The Minstrel includes an innovative diaphragm construction for the bass unit, which has been developed with the use of the latest techniques of computer impulse analysis. This has resulted in the speaker capturing the full range and power of bass in recorded music without sacrificing any of the clarity and detail contained in the mid range.
These technical advances are clearly audible in the quality of the sound production of The Minstrel, making it an excellent choice for all high fidelity home entertainment systems.

Recommended Amplifier Power:  20 - 80 watts
Sensitivity:  87 dB 1W/1m
Peak Power Handling:  100 watts
Nominal Impedance:  8 Ω
Drive Units
Cast Chassis 5" Bass/Mid Range unit
Royd 19 mm dome tweeter with secondary chamber
Crossover Frequency:  3 kHz
Bass Resonance Frequency:  43 Hz
Frequency Range:  33 Hz - 20 kHz
Cabinet Finish:  Black Ash Vinyl, Mahogany Vinyl, Silver Grey textured paint or walnut veneer
Dimensions (HxWxD): 625 x 180 x 120 mm
Base:  250 x 178 x 43 mm
Packed Weight:  16,5 kg incluse base

Infinity Reference Series 61i

Reference Series The Next Generation
In an era when pride in quality craftsmanship, independent creative thinking and conscientious attention to detail seem to be rapidly vanishing from almost every field of consumer goods, Infinity continues to lavish our unique blend of tender loving care and cutting edge engineering on every loudspeaker that bears the Infinity logo.

Most recently, we turned our attention to the popular Reference Series with an eye toward further elevating the already exceptional level of performance of this fine range of loudspeakers.
The result is Reference Series II - The Next Generation, quite simply one of the finest loudspeaker lines ever introduced. The second generation Reference Series loudspeakers represent substantial improvements in key areas such as efficiency, power handling and in both the quantity and quality of deep bass. One of the major contributing factors to this giant step forward is the introduction of drivers which incorporate proprietary APG lightweight cone technology, allowing them to respond to musical waveforms with amazing accuracy.

With higher efficiency, increased power handling and enhanced low frequency output, the new Reference Series is ready to take on any sonic challenge, from chamber melodies to operatic climaxes, from cheerful Aladdin to fearful Jurassic Park.

The Second Generation Reference Series incorporates:
Space-age APG driver technology with carbon and Kevlar fibers.
Super-light cones for improved sensitivity.
Low insertion loss crossovers for improved transient response.
Increased internal volume for extended deep bass response.
Rear-mounted port for undistorted bass response.
Crossover optimized for uniform phase response both on and off axis.
Internal bracing for reduced resonance.
Strategically placed internal damping to eliminate standing waves.
Sloped cabinet for reduced diffraction.
Redesigned grille for optimum vertical and horizontal dispersion.
Spikes for decoupling of floor-standing models.
Finest furniture craftsmanship. Sleeker, slimmer enclosure design.

APG cone technology
Without a doubt the most revolutionary innovation in the Reference Series is the implementation of a specially formulated graphite coated APG (acrylic polymer graphite) cone which combines the excellent internal damping of acrylic polymer with the stiffness of graphite. Extensive subjective and objective testing confirms that APG represents a major breakthrough in cone materials technology with stunning performance in terms of low distortion, linear frequency response, spacious sound and overall musicality.
The exclusive APG process aligns carbon and Kevlar fibers precisely along the polymer matrix, allowing total control over the contour and weight of the cone, while making it possible to create a lightweight cone with varying thickness, for greater dispersion of sound. Carbon and Kevlar fibers are embedded in an APG matrix in carefully controlled proportions. Following oven heating, the compound forms an extremely rigid, ultra-lightweight and super-strong composite cone material with maximum internal damping which offers a significant reduction in distortion caused by colorations, vibration and break-up modes. The sonic benefits of the fast transient response and high sensitivity of the new lightweight driver cones are readily apparent in the astonishing openness, lucidity and harmonic fidelity of the Reference Series loudspeakers. Their crisp, detailed sound is the result of innovative materials and driver technology unrivalled in contemporary loudspeaker engineering.

High sensitivity
Since APG cones are 30% lighter than paper cones of equal stiffness, Infinity engineers could design the new Reference Series with higher efficiency, without employing heavier, more costly magnetic structures.
The high sensitivity of the Reference Series loudspeakers, with highly efficient magnetic systems, super-light cones and low insertion loss crossovers, means far less work for your amplifier. Since amplifier distortion increases with higher power output, reducing power demands also yields a significant reduction in distortion.
Since lightweight cones respond more rapidly and linearly to transients, the rigid, high-tech cone materials employed in the high efficiency Reference Series dynamic drivers offer enhanced transparency, improved resolution of low level detail and of the ambience cues which create a wide and deep soundstage. An increase of 3dB in sensitivity reduces by 50% the power required from your amplifier to achieve the same sound pressure level.

Sophisticated crossover
The new Infinity Reference Series' low insertion loss crossover networks employ select-grade components in o crossover configuration designed to preserve signal integrity and efficiency.
Crossover design assisted by state of the art. computer technology and controlled by  extensive listening tests ensures optimum linearity combined with lowest distortion and the finest sonic quality.
The high efficiency of the crossovers permits  the use of Reference Series speakers in high power applications, including demanding home theater systems.

Enclosure design
In the new Reference Series loudspeakers  radical steps have been taken to eliminate the "boxiness" normally associated with conventional cabinet construction.
The midrange drivers are installed in separate air-tight compartments filled with special damping material to provide smooth, linear reproduction of the crucial midband.
Internal bracing and damping reduce the deleterious effects of resonances and standing waves. Front baffle diffraction phenomena, which typically introduce smearing in the time domain, are reduced through the implementation of an optimized grille shape and through tapering of cabinet top and sides. Rear-mounted bass reflex ports minimize noise, while providing extended, punchy bass.
The Reference Series speakers in Chatsworth Oak or Black Ash vinyl are finished to the highest standards of furniture craftsmanship and their sleek contemporary "Tower" look will match most interiors.

 Reference 61 i
The top of the line Reference tower includes spikes for effective decoupling from the floor and gold-plated terminals for long-term purity of signal transmission. The Reference 61 i adds a second 210 mm APG woofer to the driver complement found in the Reference 51 i, further extending low frequency response and power handling with two woofer voice coils to share the workload.
The 25 mm APG-coated dome tweeter minimizes break-up of the radiating surface across its operating range for smoother, more natural high frequency response with very low distortion. The mechanically isolated 25 mm unit reproduces the midrange with outstanding clarity and definition.
The Reference 61 i brings music to life with a new fullness and richness.
Note: Include spiked feet.

Model:  Reference 61i
Frequency Response: 35 Hz - 25,000 Hz, (±3 dB)
Crossover:  350 Hz / 3 kHz
Sensitivity (2,83 V / 1m):  92 dB
Nominall Impedance:  6 Ω
Power Handling:  35 - 200 watts
High Frequency:  Tweeter  25 mm
Mid Frequency:  Midrange 130 mm
Low Frequency:  Woofer  2 x 210 mm
Vinyl Cabinet Finish:  Chatsworth Oak/ Black Ash
Dimensions (HxWxD):   1070 x 274 x 310 mm