What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

Pioneer CT-F6262 cassette deck

Front-Access Stereo Cassette Deck with Exclusive Pioneer Vertical Cassette Holding Mechanism, Automatic Chrome Detection and Outstanding Performance Features.

Your first reaction to the Pioneer CT-F6262 will probably be surprise. For the price it packs a lot of potential for anyone who is making the move to individual stereo components, and desires solid cassette performance. Pioneer makes more expensive decks, of course. But the CT-F6262 is certainly one of the very best we make when it comes to adding up cost/performance  value. Some of the features make this last point obvious. The Pioneer - perfected Automatic Chrome Tape Detection System - an exclusive - eliminates the guesswork when you use the wide-range Chrome tapes. It switches the bias/equalization to the correct values for Chrome, and also makes it easy to take advantage of the newer Ferrichrome as well as standard lownoise tapes. Another advantage that costs the world in some tape decks, but not ours, is our Vertical-Hold Cassette Compartment. Tapes are held firmly upright so you can read lables and see tape movement. Very convenient. All controls are up front too, for easy access. They include Dolby, Memory Stop and easy-touch  Pause  and tape-transport keys. We've also used an electronically-controlled DC servomotor with built-in generator for excellent wow and flutter, a "Permalloy Solid" head for improved durability, and a wide dynamic range preamplifier. Add sall these features up, then take a look at the price of this fine Pioneer deck, and, literally, you won't believe your eyes. Or, may we add your ears.

Pioneer Exclusive Front-Loading Design
Exclusive with Pioneer is the vertical cassette holding mechanism that is employed so that tape movement and labels on all cassette tapes are visible during operation. You can instantly check tape movement through the transparent, molded acrylic sliding door of the tape compartment, and since there is no extra mechanisms for tape loading and ejection, changing tapes is literally a "snap". Head maintenance is also easy with this super front-loading design. Other advantages of this smooth format is the fact that it is based on the same design concept as other components, which means it is easy to stack them under, over or in between other components, while matching them in appearance.

High Performance Drive Mechanism
Tape transport stability and rotation characteristics are enhanced by the highly reliable drive mechanism employed by the CT-F6262. it includes a precision-processed flat belt and electronically-controlled DC servo-motor with built-in generator which leads to a good ±0,2% wow and flutter (DIN). Micro tolerance precision parts are also employed in the drive assemblies, to reduce wow and flutter and contribute to the crisp, clear mid/high frequency sounds so important to stereo sound.

Automatic Tape Selector for Chrome
Nearly all "Chrome" cassette tapes on the market have a special detection recess in their plastic shells. When a chrome tape is inserted into the cassette compartment, the tape selector senses that it is chrome and automatically switches the deck's bias and equalization for playback/recording to the correct value. The front-panel CrO₂ indicator lights up, and manual switching is unnecessary. This selector lets you get the very most of ferrichrome cassettes.

Long Life, Hard Permalloy-Solid Head.
The surface of this solid-type extra-hard, precision-gap head is mirror finished to permit smooth, conatant tape-to-head contact with a minimum of friction. This Pioneer head is distinguished by long-life stability and outstanding electromagnetic characteristics. The Permalloy-Solid material and precision design help repel dust and allow the least possible magnetic loss in the critical high frequencies. The head layout is engineered for ease-of-access, thus easy cleaning.

Type:  Compact Cassette Tape Deck
Motor:  Electronically-controlled DC motor witha built-in generator for capstan drive
Heads:  1 x Hard Permalloy Solid Rec/Pb; 1 x Ferrite erasing Head
Fast Winding Tme:  within 85 sec C-60
Wow and Flutter:  within ±0,2% DIN ; 0,08% WRMS
Frequency Response:
Standard Tape :  30 to 14,000 Hz (30 - 12,000 Hz DIN)
Chromium Dioxide Tape :  30 to 16,000 Hz (30 - 13,500 Hz DIN)
Ferrichromium Dioxide Tape:  30 to 16,000 Hz
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Dolby Off:  more than 52 dB (more than 57 dB DIN)
Dolby On :  more than 62 dB (over 5 kHz)
When a chromium dioxide tape is used, SIN is further improved by 4,5 dB over 5 kHz
Harmonic Distortion:  no more than 1,7%
Inputs Sensitivity/max.allowableInput/Impedance:
MIC :  0,23 mV/80 mV/ 23 k Ω , 6 mm jack (reference MIC Impedance:  250 Ω  to 30 k Ω )
Line :  64 mV/ 25V/ 100 k Ω , pin Jack
DIN :  10 mV/ 3,6 V/ 2,2 k Ω , 5P jack (DIN standard)
Outputs Reference Level/Maximum Level/Load Impedance:
Line :  450 mV/ 800 mV/ 50 k Ω , pin jack
DIN :  450 mV/ 800 mV/ 50 k Ω , 5P jack (DIN standard)
Headphones:  60 mV/ 107 mV/ 8 Ω , 6 mm stereo jack with output level controls
Amplifier Section:  48 Transistors including 4 FETs;  34 Diodes including 3 Zener Diodes and 2 LEDs
Motor Control Section:  3 Transistors; 1 Diode,
Power Supply:  120 V, 60 Hz; 110, 220, 240 V, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  18 watts
Dimensions (W x H x D):  413 x 177 x 315 mm (16-1/4" x 6-31/32" x 12-13/32 "
Weight:  8,4 kg (18 lb 8 oz) net

Hitachi D-E55 cassette deck

Hitachi D-E55
Microcomputer-Controlled Cassette Deck with Metal-tape Compatibility, Feather- Touch Controls, Auto Rec Mute Function, and Dual 12-LED peak Meters.
The first thing that will impress you about the D-E55 is that it has the look and feel of a precision instrument. The handsome styling and the incredibly smooth operation provided by the built-in microprocessor and power-assisted feather-touch controls are unexpectedly luxurious considering the D-E55's accessible price tag. A large number of computer-controlled automatic functions have been incorporated, too - for exceptional flexibility and convenience. You get Auto Rec Mute, Auto Rewind Play/Stop, Computerized memory Rewind, Timer Play/Record, and provision for optional remote control.
Naturally, the D-E55 also gives you the greatsound Hitachi is famous for.. It's metal-tape compatible, and there's a 4-position tape selector switch to get excellent performance with any find of tape. Dual 12-LED peak level indicators permit accurate setting of recording levels.

Microcomputer Control
Conventional tape decks use mechanical linkages to engage the mechanism when you push the transport controls. These can eventually cause alignment problems, particularly if too much force is used. Also, a mistake in operation such as pushing fast forward instead of stop when  the tape is rewinding is liable to stretch the tape or damage the transport. The D-E55's microcomputer control ends thaes problems by intelligently managing all functions, gliding the transport into position at the proper time with just the right amount of force. What's more, all controls are feather-touch and can be switched directly from mode to mode without the need to push the stop button. The microprocessor also controls a variety of automatic functions.

Computerized Memory Rewind
Unlike ordinary memory rewind systems which rely on the tape counter to specify the desired stopping point on the tape, the D-E55 system uses the microcomputer to memorize the position of the tape when the Play button is pressed, allowing to rewind to the that point at any time. When the Memory rewind Play mode is selected, the tape begins to play after being rewound, very convenient for listening to a particular selection a number of times. Memory rewind is also a big help when recording; to re-recorded after having made a mistake, use memory rewind stop to return to the exact position you started at.

Auto Rewind Play/Stop
This handly feature adds a lot to operating convenience. In the Stop mode, the tape is automatically rewound when the end is reached and the transport is shut off- no need to waste time rewinding it later. In the play mode, the tape is automatically rewound at the end, the Play function is re-initiated so you hear the same side again until you stop it manually - ideal for continuous background music.

Auto Rec Mute
Still another feature made possible by the microcomputer, Auto Rec Mute makes taping easier and gives better results. One touch of the Rec Mute button and a 4-second section of blank tape is automatically made, the ideal waay to place intervals of silence between the selections on your tape. Intervals other than 4 seconds may also be made by using the pause button in combination qith the Rec Mute button. The pause indicator flashes once a second to help measure the exact time desired.

LED peak Meters
Instead of the usual machanical VU or peak meters, the D-E55 offers dual 12-LED peak indicators driven by advanced digital circuitry. Since there are no moving parts,, these meters do not suffer from delay or overshoot like their mechanical counterparts, and therefore provide accurate, instantaneous visual monitoring of signal levels.
You'll really appreciate how easy these meters make it to set precise record levels for top-quality recordings.

4-position Tape Selector Switch
A large variety of  recording tapeare available on the market, with widely varying characteristics. It is essential that the deck be matched to the particular type of tape in use ifideal results are to be obtained. The D-E55 has switch settings for metal, CrO₂, Normal, and FeCr tapes, giving you optimum results whatever tape type you use.

Motor:  Electronically controlled DC motor
Heads:  metal Sl record/playback head double-gap ferrite Erase head
41 Transistors ; 27 Diodes; 2 varistors; 5 LEDs; 6 ics
Track System:  4 track, 2 channel stereo
Tape:  cassette Tape C-30. C-60, C-90
Tape Speed:  4,75 cm/s
Recording System and Bias Frequncy:  AC bias, 85 Hz
Erasing System:  AC erase
Erase Ratio:  65 dB or more (at 1 kHz)
Frequency Response:
Normal :  20 Hz - 17 kHz
Cro2 :  20 Hz - 18 kHz
Metal :  20 Hz - 18 kHz
FeCr :  20 Hz - 17 kHz
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Dolby NR Off :  59 dB (weighted A, reference 3% THD.  Metal tape)
Dolby NR On :  67 dB (weighted A, reference 3% THD. Metal Tape)
Wow and Flutter:  0,04% WRMS (0,13% DIN)
Input Sensitivity/ Impedance:
Microphone :  0,3 mV/  300 Ω - 5 kΩ
Line In :  50 mV/ 50 k Ω or more
DIN  (Rec/Pb) :  0,3 mV/3,3 k Ω
Output Level:  500 mV
Output Load Impedance:
Line Out :  50 k Ω or more
DIN (Rec/Pb):  50 k Ω or more
Headphones :  8 Ω - 2 k Ω
Distortion:  1,0% (1 kHz , -3 dB)
Crosstalk:  60 dB or more (at 1 kHz)
Channel Separation:  30 dB or more (at 1 kHz)
Power Supply:  AC 120V, 100-110 V, 115-127 V, 220-220 V, 230-240 V, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  21 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  435 x 110 x 266 mm
Weight:  4,6 kg

Aiwa AD-3600

Aiwa AD-3600U
The advantages of 3-head performance needn't represent an extravagance to your system budget. Here's quality 3-head model with an impressive array of convenient features.

New DX record/Pb combination head
Designed for the more rigid demands of metal tape, the new DX head consruction departs radicaslly from traditional concepts. A combination of high-density sendust and ultra-hard permalloy, it features a pressure-formed 6-layer laminated core uniquely designed to resist uneven wear of the tape contact surfaces. Gap width is set at 4 microns for the record head, 1 micron for playback, giving each the ideal capability for wider frequency response. Naturally the AD-3600 features a monitor facility for comparasion of input signalswith the just-completed recording - a sureadvantage over 2-head models

New Auto Demagnetizing System (A.D.M.S)
Mo more awkward treatments with bulky head demagnetizers; the AD-3600 incorporates a sophisticated circuit which effectively removes magnetic saturation in the record/playback head each time the unit's power is turned on. ADMS ensures that recordings need never be marred by high-frequency losses or noise generated by a magnetized head. Completely safe, even with a cassette loaded in the unit.
Operation time: approx. 1,5 seconds.

Dolby HX (Headroom Extension) system
This new system from Dolby laboratories is incorporated into the conventional noise reduction circuit but has the separate role of improving high frequency response of demanding program material. Dolby HX functions by altering the deck's bias and equalization levels as needed to maintain linearity of the signals. As it operates during recording only, playback can be made in the ordinary Dolby-ON position, thus making tapes recorded with the HX system completely compatible with decks not equipped with HX circuitry.

Plus Features:
Feather-touch IC logic controls
Optical peak LED display (-20 to +20 dB)
Automatic tape slack canceller
Rc-mute edit facility
Bias fine adjust control for LH tapes
Timer standby record and playback operation 
Type:  single compact cassette deck
Track Type:  4-track, 2-channel stereo
Motor:  24-pole controlled servo motor and 1 DC servo motor
Tape Speed:  4.8 cm/s
FF& Rewind Time:  70 sec (C-60)
Heads:  1 x sendust record/playback, 1 x ferrite erase
Tape Type:  Normal, CrO₂, Metal
Noise Reduction:  Dolby B, HX
Frequency Response:
Normal :  20 Hz to 17,000 Hz (20-14,000 Hz DIN)
CrO₂ :  20 Hz to 19,000 Hz (20-17,000 Hz DIN)
Metal :  20 Hz to 20 kHz  (20-18,000 Hz DIN)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  68 dB  (Metal, Dolby B)
Wow and Flutter:  less than 0.029% (WRMS)
Line :  50 mV (50 k Ω )
Microphone :  0.3 mV (200 Ω  - 10 k Ω )
DIN :  0,1 mV (3 k Ω )
Line :  0.55V (50 k Ω)
DIN :  0,55 mV (50 k Ω)
Hedaphones :  0,8 mV (8 Ω)
Power Supply:  AC 120V/220V/240V 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  22 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  420 x 109 x 285 mm
Weight:  5.3 kg

Onkyo CP-1015A turntable

Onkyo CP-1015A
Direct Drive Semi-Automatic Single Play Turntable with Straight-line Low Mass Tonearm, Adjustable Pitch Control and Front Panel Controls

Straight Low Mass Arm
Fully equipped for Superb Disk Tracking
Outstanding record reproduction depends on two things, stable platter rotation and precision tonearm performance. With its direct drive electronics servo controlled motor and diecast aluminum platter, you can depend on the CP-1015A to maintain accurate rotational speed characteristics. In fact, wow and flutter is a mere 0,035%.
And with the straight low mass tonearm you;ll enjoy the natural undistorted sound quality that comes from accurate grove tracing. Even with warped records, this advanced tonearm design delivers outstanding results. For real convenience you'll also appreciate such extras as front panel controls, adjustable pitch (speed) and the wide-view strobe window.

Improved Low-Range Resonance Frequency Characteristics
Compared with conventional S-shaped tonearms, Onkyo's new straight low mass arm is better designed and equipped to handle today's high-compliance cartridges. The lower effective mass of this advanced carbon fiber arm greatly improves low-range resonance frequency characteristics, substantially reducing  undesirable subsonic signals in the process. Thus, reproduction is clean and clear, free from intermodulation distortion.

Lightweight static-balanced straight-line tonearm
Equipped with carbon fiber headshell ADC-type connector
Direct drive DC motor with electronic servo control
Diecast aluminium platter with rubber mat
Independent pitch controls and stroboscope
Convenient auto-return and auto-cut functions
Front panel controls including up/down cueing
Direct readout tracking force and adjustable anti-skating
Triple-insulated feet and vibration damping cabinet
Removable dust cover
45 rpm single record adaptor

Type:  2-speed automatic-return
Turntable Platter:  310 mm (12-1/4") aluminium diecast
Motor:  Brushless electronic servo direct drive DC motor
Speeds:  33-1/3 and 45 rpm
Speed Control:  Adjustable range ±3 %
Wow and Flutter:  0,035% WRMS
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  to dB (DIN B)
Tonearm:  Lightweight straight-line static balanced pipe tonearm with detachable headshell (ADC type connector) and counterweight with direct tracking force read out
Suitable Cartrid
Weigh:  5-9 grams
Adjustable Range:  3 grams
Maximum Length:  276 mm
Effective Arm Length:  220 mm
Overhang:  14 mm
Maximum Tracking Error:  +3 degrees, -1,5 degress (offset angle 21 degrees)
Cartridge Type: Tapered carbon fiber cantilever
"V" magnet type (0C - 52 V)
Frequency Response:  20 Hz - 20,000 Hz
Recommended load Impedance:  47 k Ω
Recommended  Tracking Force:  2 grams
Compliance:  8 x 10¯⁶ cm/dyne
Output Voltage:  3,5 mV
Stylus Tip:  0,6 mil diamond
Replacement Stylus:  DN-52st
Power Supply:  AC 110  - 120, 220 - 240 V, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  6 watts
Dimensions (W x H x D):  418 x 371 x 140 mm (16-1/2 x 14-1/2" x 5-1/2")
Weight:  5,5 kg (12,1 lbs)

Onkyo TA-2020

Slim Vertical-Hold Stereo Cassette Deck with ACCUBIAS and Metal Tape Handling Capability.

TA-2020 get more out of Metal tape recording with Accubias Control
Metal Bias and EQ Tape Selector
Specially processed Hard permalloy Head
Double-Gap Laminated Core Ferrite Erase head
Servo-Controlled DC Motor for low Wow and Flutter
Large VU Meters
Dolby Noise reduction Circuity with MPX Filter
Independent left and Right Channel Input Level Controls
Microphone jacks for Live Stereo Recording
Timer Start/pause Button for unassisted recording and Playback
Recording and Dolby NR indicator LEDs

Track Format:  4-tracks, 2 channel
Erase System:  AC erase
Tape Speed:  4,5 cm/sec
Fast Forward and rewind Time:  90 sec (C-60)
Wow and Flutter:  0,06% (WRMS)
Frequency Response:
Metal Tape :  20 - 16,000 Hz (30 - 15,000 Hz ±3 dB)
High Position Tape :  20 - 16,000 Hz (30 - 15,000 Hz ±3 dB)
Normal Position Tape :  20 -15,000 Hz (30 - 14,000 Hz ±3 dB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  60 dB (Metal tape, Dolby NR Ot)
Input Terminals:
Microphone Jack :  2
Minimum Input Level :  0,3 mV/ 600 Ω
Input Impedance:  5 k Ω
Line In :  2 jacks
Minimum Input Level :  50 mV
Input Impedance :  50 k Ω
Output Terminals
Line Out :  2 Jacks
Standard Output Level :  350 mV (0 VU)
Optimum Level Impedance:  more than 50 k Ω
Headphone : 1
Optimum Impedance :  8 / 200 Ω
Motor :  DC servo motor
Heads:  Rec/Pb Head :  hard permalloy head
Erase head :  ferrite head
Controls:  Tape selectors; Metal/ High/ Normal ACCUBIAS controls; input level Controls, left and Right
Power Supply:  AC 120, 220, 240 V; 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption:  13 watts
Semiconductors:  3 ICs, 16 Transistors; 17 Diodes; 2 LEDs; 5 SCRs
Dimensions (W x H x D):  418 x 120 x 270 mm (16-1/2" x 4-3/4" x 10-5/8")
Weight:  4,8 kg (10,6 lbs)

Magneplanar SMGa

SMGa features:
Low Mass - .0005 inch diaphragm
Bi-Polar Design - No cabinet to color sound
Direct Coupled - No transformer is necessary. Subtle detailing is maintained with no dynamic compression
Mirror-Imaged - for stable stereo image
Linear power response - No compression of dynamic range
Superb Power Response
High Power handling
Flat Impedance - for ideal amplifier loading
Accurate Phase response

SMGa - incorporates most of the unique qualities of the large expensive models, at an affordable price. This smallest and most popular models is for the serious music lover on a budget and works best in smaller listening rooms. The SMGa can be placed against the wall when you are listening to backgound music or pulled out 2 or 3 feet to appreciate their full potential. The SMGa is our most efficient model and can be driven with smaller receivers and amplifiers or can be part of a serious sudiophile system, utilizing the best of equipment.
The music lover on a budget can now  own a music system that will bring him or her much closer to the excitement of a live performance. Available in three trims (oak, brass, or chrome), and three fabric colors ( off-white , black or brown).

Type:  2-way, Full-Range, Planar/Magnetic Speaker System
Frequency Response:  50 Hz to 18 kHz ±3 dB
Recommended Power:  40 to 150 Watts RMS (8 Ω)
Sensitivity:  90 dB (1 watt/1 m)
Impedance :  4 Ω, Resistive
Dimensions:  24-1/4" x 48-9/16" x 1-3/4"
Weight:  28 lbs

NAGRA III - tape recorder

NAGRA III (1957) DC servo controlled electric motor. Germanium transistors

The Nagra III is a self contained professional tape recorder, assuring an excellent reliability factor, and the best recording quality available outside your studio. The frequency response, Signal-to-Noise and wow and flutter characterisctics  of the Nagra III, are similar too those of the best studio consol recorders, but modulation noise is even better.

Motor and speed stabilizer
The motor of the Nagra is of the permanent magnet electrodynamic type and resembles a d'Arsonval galvcanometer with central magnet. The Nagra III uses a new technique for controlling the speed of the motor.
The motor carries on its spindle a phonic wheel as well as the capstan, which passes in front of a magnetic head - the tachometer head. This head is magnetised and the rotation of the phonic wheel induces an alternating current, the frequency of which depends upon the speed of rotation of the motor. This passes through the tachometer amplifier  where it is  shaped into a square wave of constant amplitude of about 6 volts peak to peak. This output is taken to a frerquency discriminator. This operates the servo amplifier which controls the motor speed. As the voltage at the servo amplifier becomes increasingly negative, so the motor current will increase.

Microphone preamplifier
This Nagra is equiped with a new type of microphone preamplifier designated LN. This preamplifier permits the selection of input impedance  between 50 Ω and 200 Ω. All that is necessary to do in order to change from one impedance to the other, is to rewire internally the connections on the input transformer.

Electronics:  38 Transistors, 15 Diode, 1 Zener Dode
Tape Speed:  15 ips, 7,5 ips, 3-3/4 ips
Reel Diameter:  7" with cover open, 5" with cover closed
Speed Regulation:  0,05% or better 60/50 Hz buil-in stroboscope
Rewind:  fast rewind and fast forward controls
Magnetic Heads: 
1 High frequency erase head with double gap; 
1 Full track record head; 
1 Full track playback head; 
1 Neopilot sync track head with high frequency  bias
Equalization:  NAB
1 x Microphone  :  50 - 200 Ω impedance
1 x Line ( 600 Ω) or Bridging (100 k Ω)
Line input with BS preamplifier can be used for separate mixing of second microphone.
Line input with BM mixer can be used for separate mixing of three extra microphones plus line input.
Oscillator Frequency:  65 kHz
Output Level:  +15 dbm
Output Impedance:  600 Ω
Frequency Response:
At 15 ips :  30 c/s to 18,000 c/s ±1 dB
At 7-1/2 ips :  40 c/s to 15,000 c/s ±1 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:  75 dB at 15 ips
Erasure:  - 80 dB
Temperature Range:  -4° F to +122°F
Power Consumption:
85 mA : in test mode
175 mA :  in Playback mode
205 mA :  in Recording mode
Batteries:  12 standard Flashlight "D" Cells
Dimensions :  12,5 x 8,7 x 4,3 inch
Weight :  13 lb 13 oz
Recorder Case:  Rugged lightweight metal
Carrying Case:  eveready feather case with or without padding

Teac A-170 cassette deck

The A-170 is the basic cassette machine. But it's basic only when compared to more advanced Teac models. Our entire line is extremely sophisticated, offering quality and features not generally found on less expensive equipment. Every Teac deck must pass a rigid quality control check before leaving the factory, and reliability is almost synonymous with the Teac name. Additional features make some of our products more expensive. But none are more rugged or reliable than the A-170.

The Teac tape transport
The A-170 features a new transport system utilizing many of the ultra-precise parts and design innovations found in our more costly decks. Included among these are the special Teac capstan driveshaft, ground to a tolerance of 1 micron or less. And an all new DC Servo Controlled Motor, with amazing sspeed accuracy. These transport features provide smooth precise tape motion, and wow and flutter is kept to an insignificant 0,09%

High density ferrite heads.
The A-170 features High Density Ferrite heads which are extremely hard and offer a greatly extended life. Teac heads are specially designed to permit distortion-free recording up through the highest audio frequencies.

Expanded range level meters
The key to good recordings is the proper setting of the input levels. The  large, bright meters on thhe A-170 make this easy. The meters are merked to +3 VU but needle range extends to +6 VU to facilitate adjustment for very strong signals and to allow higher than normal recording levels.

Built-in Dolby NR.
The A-170 includes the same Dolby Noise Reduction circuitry found in our top-of-the-line A-450. it reduces tape  hiss and can improve your Signal-to-Noise by as much as 10 dB over 5 kHz. You'll probably use it all the time.

Other important features
Two position switches let you adjust Bias and EQ for either Ferric Oxide or Chromium Dioxide tapes, for maximum performance from both.
The Mic/Line switch allows you to select between "Live" recording from microphones or recording from other audio sources, and cuts in a built-in pre-ampifier  when microphones are used.
Built into the A-170's transport system is an advanced Auto-Stop mechanism. Whenever the end of the tape is reached, the transport automatically returns to the Stop mode.

Track System:  4-track, 2-Channel Stereo
Motor:  DC-Servo Controlled Motor
Heads: two. Erase and Record/Playback heads
Tape Type:  Compact Cassette C-60 and C-90
Wow and Flutter:  0,09% (NAB weighted)
Frequency Response (overall):  30 - 16,000 Hz (CrO₂ tape); 30 -13,000 Hz
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (overall):  50 dB (can be improved with Dolby NR up to 5 dB at 1 kHz and 10 dB over 5 kHz)
Rewind/Fast Forward Time:  100 seconds for C-60
Inputs Sensitivity /Impedance:
Line :  2 x 60 mV/50 k Ω
Microphone :  0,25 mV (-72 dB)/600 Ω or more
Line :  2 x 0,775 V/ 50 k Ω
Headphone :  Jack, 8 Ω
Power Requirement:  100/117/220/240 V AC, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption: 8 W
Dimensions (W x H x D):  430 x 136 x 225 mm (16-15/16" x 5-3/8" x 8-7/8")
Weight:  4,5 kg (10 lbs) net

Yamaha NS-410

Bookshelf convenience 4-channel rear speaker adaptbility natural Sound performance.
yamaha NS-410
NS sound. you've heard of the great things it does for music, broadcasting every note with full, rich harmonics, incredibly brilliant highs and sonorus lows. now it's yours in ultra-compact bookshelf wall mount speakers perfect for small-room stereo or as rear speakers for the finest 4-channel systems.
A new Yamaha breakthrough brings you the same Natural Sound we pioneered with our world-famous flat types, in these lighter, more compact cone speakers.

JA - 2054 of 20 cm cone type Woofer is carried in low - pass.
Cone paper is made of pulp and wool blended material with large internal loss, and by using rubber type damping material in combination, suppression of divided vibration.
Phenol rubber type support material is applied to the edge and the dip of the frequency characteristic generated from the vicinity of the edge is prevented.

In the high region, JA - 0507 of a show with a structure close to the dome type and a tweeter with horn mixed with horn type and cone type is carried.
Mylar is adopted as the diaphragm, bobbin is removed to lighten the vibration system, and the diaphragm and the aluminum ribbon wire edgewise voice coil are directly connected.
Furthermore, a brake element made of expanded urethane was tried between the diaphragm and the center pole, and excellent high frequency characteristics were obtained.
Also, the directivity is improved by a special section close to the dome.

Type:  2-way 2-speaker
Frequency:  85 Hz - 18,000 Hz
Output Sound Pressure Level:  94 dB / W / m (New JIS)
The Lowest Resonance Frequency:  85 Hz
For low-pass:  20 cm cone type (JA-2054)
For high range:  dome type (JA - 0507)
Crossover:  5 kHz, 6 dB/oct, 12 dB/oct
Impedance:  8 Ω
Dimensions:  310 x 488 x 180 mm.
Weight:  6,5 kg
Finish:  White or Rosewood

Yamaha HP-3 headphones

Yamaha invites you to enjoy a private word of musical enjoyment. Light, and with the gentlest of ear-pad pressures, the HP-3 headphones are a transparent window on the world of music.
Wide frequency response and low distortion combine to give a clear and uncolored reproduction superior to the finest loudspeakers. And you can enjoy the full, shattering sound levels of hard rock, or grand opera, without disturbing those around you. They also assure faithful and delicate reproduction of a whispered vocal, or a solo violin. Orthodynamic design is the secret.
With the HP-3 you may well forget that you are wearimg headphones. But you will never forget the thrilling realism that they bring to your private musical enjoyment.

Type:  Orthodynamic Type
Impedance:  150 Ω
Diaphragm Diameter:  46 mm
Sensitivity:  93 dB/mW, 101 dB/V
Max. Continuous Input:  1 W
Max. Input: 3 W
Weight: 210 g (with cord)

Tannoy Mercury F4

F4 utilises a 1-inch  (25 mm) Nitro-urethane layer-damped woven polyester dome tweeter and a powerful neodymium magnet assembly.
Two 6,5-inch (165 mm) Bass drivers utilise extremely lightweight multi-fibre coated pulped paper cone offering exceptional rigidity.
Finish is available in apple wood or dark oak vinyl veneer
Recommended amplifier power from 10 to 140 Watts RMS

Enclosure Type:  Front reflex braced encloseure
High Frequency :  25mm (1.00") soft dome tweeter
Low Frequency:  Two x 165mm (6.50") bass driver
Frequency Response (at 3dB):  35 Hz to 20 kHz
Amplifier Power Range:  10 to 140 watts / channel
Crossover Frequency:  2.7 kHz
Maximum Power Handling:  200 watts / cannel
Sensitivity:  91 dB
Impedance:  8 Ω
Effective Volume:  40.0 Litres
Weight:  13.5 Kg
Finish:  Apple Wood or Dark Oak

Pioneer SX-990 Receiver

AM/FM Multiplex Stereo Receiver
 Never has any receiver combined such exceptional high performance with so many audiorefinemental a full 100W at 8 ohms over a frequency response from 10 to a fantastic 100,000 Hz Advanced solid state circuitry with Field Effect Transistor and Integrated Circuits and a 4-gang variable capacitor - for significantly superior sensitivity and limiting. Two tuning meters, an unusually wide range of inputs and outputs, precise tone controls and a host of important innovations. Meticulously engineered. Stunningly styled. Truly one of the finest audio components ever created.
High-performance FM Tuner
An FET (Field-Effect Transistor) is used in the radio-frequency amplifier to attain a high sensitivity and selectivity. Further, four ICs (Integrated Circuits) are used for the intermediate frequency amplifier to eliminate interference and noise.

 Built-In Excellent FM MPX Circuit
This switching circuit having excellent separation and frequency response is built in for reproduction of reality music.

 Built-In Highly-Sensitive Ferrite Antenna for AM Radio Reception
The ferrite antenna provides high-sensitivity reception of AM broadcast programs.

Special Curcuitry for Versatility
The high output given by strictly selected transistors, two sets of loudspeaker terminals and phono terminals, and the provision for using a microphone make Model SX-990 suitable for the professional use as well as the family use.

A variety of Accessories
Accessories include the program lamps that indicate the program being played, the tuning meters vertically arranged for facilitating selection of an FM broadcast program, the loudspeaker selector switch, tape monitor switch, etc, all for enjoyable use of Model SX-990.

Audio Section
Circuitry:  Single ended push pull
Semiconductors:  25 Transistors; 5 Diodes
Music Power Output (IHF Rating):
100 watts total at 8 Ω
130 watts total at 4 Ω
Continous Power Output
Each channel driven:  35 W / 35 W at 8 Ω
Both channel driven :  28 W + 28 W at 8 Ω  (30 W + 30 W at 4 Ω )
Total Harmonic Distortion:  less than 0,5% (at 1 kHz rated output)
Frequency Response:  10 Hz tp 100 kHz ±3 dB ( Overall)
Power Bandwidth:  15 Hz to 40 kHz (AUX)
Hum and Noise:
Mag :  better than 80 dB
Aux :  better than 100 dB
Input Sensitivity/Impedance:
Magnetic Phono :  3,3 mV / 50 k Ω
Ceramic Phono :  24 mV / 100 k Ω 
Microphone :  5 mV / 100 k Ω
Tape Monitor :  200 mV / 100 k Ω
Aux :  200 mV / 100 k Ω
Main In :  530 mV / 100 k Ω
Output Terminals Impedance:
Speakers :  4 to 16 Ω
Equalization Curves:  Phono RIAA
Tone Controls
Bass :  boost 11 dB/oct, cut 16,5 dB at 50 Hz
Treble :  boost 10 dB , cut 9,5 dB at 10 kHz
Low :  cut 8 dB at 50 Hz
High :  cut 7,5 dB at 10 kHz
Loudness Contour:  boost 12 dB at 50 Hz, boost 9 dB at 10 kHz (switchable to On-Off ( vol. Control at  -40 dB)
FM Section
Circuitry:  Front end using FET end 4 gang variable capacitor, IF amplifier 4 IC
Semiconductors:  1 FET, 5 ICs, 11 Transistors, 12 Diodes
Frequency Range:  87,5 to 98 MHz
IHF Usable Sensitivity:  1,7 µV
Image Rejection:  87 dB (at 98 MHz)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio :  62 dB (IHF rating)
Antenna Input:  300 ohms (balanced)
Multiplex Section
Circuitry:  Time-switching type de-modulator FM Mono Stereo Automatic selection
Channel Separation:  42 dB (At 1 kHz)
AM Section
Circuitry:  Superheterodyne
Frequency Range:  525 to 1605 kHz
IHF Usable Sensitivity:  18 µV
Image Rejection:  77 dB (at 1000 kHz)
Antenna Input:  Built-in Ferrite Loopstick Antenna
General Section
Line Requirements:  110, 117, 130, 220 and 240 V; 50 - 60 Hz;  210 VA 190 watts (max)
Dimensions (W x H x D):  459 x 145 x 369 mm (18-1/16" x 5-11/16" x 14-1/2")
Weight: 11,4 kg (26 lb 2 oz) net