What is stereo?

There are now two system of high fidelity, monophonic (monaural) and stereophonic. Monophonic is a system that starts from one microphone and is fed through a single high fidelity set. Stereophonic is a double system. Two separate microphones are placed at different sides of the orchestra and two different systems are used to keep the two signals or channels separated. Two separate speakers are used, placed on different sides of you room. Stereo is much like 3-D photography, two slightly different sound reach your ears giving you a new dimension in sound.

H.H. Scott '59

BASSOCONTINUO Audio Systems - Musa Stand

Stand for bookshelf or surround loudspeakers
Implementable modular structure.
Base and top made of big thickness Plexiglas
Adjustable spikes to fight the vibrations and for a perfect setting.
Massive base disk to protect delicate surface like parquet.
Decoupling by o-ring and gum washer
Completely customizable by on-line configurator

General description: Modular stand for bookshelf or surround loudspeaker.
Adjustable spikes with massive base disks.
Base and top made of hand polished Plexiglas.
Materials: Structure made of stainless steel AISI313.
Shelves made of Plexiglas.
Thickness of the shelf: 25 mm / 1”
Total height: From 520 mm (20” ¼) up to 755 mm (30”)
Basement overall dimension: 250 x 300 mm / 10” x 12” (W x D)
Useful size: Available in 3 different sizes; see technical data sheet
Decoupling: By gum o-ring
Note: Supplied in kit

ALTUS 110 Unitra - Tonsil

Sistema di altoparlanti ZgB 70-8-61 "Altus 110" prodotto negli stabilimenti della Tonsil.
Le "Altus" sono state prodotte dal 1984 fino alla metà degli anni novanta e fino ad ora sono uno dei modelli più popolari e più apprezzati in tutta la Polonia. Conosciute sul mercato europeo con nomi come HGS Electronics, Dynamic Speaker o Geton.
Senz'altro sono un simbolo di culto tra gli appassionati di stereofonia dell'epoca. Amate da tanti ma anche odiate da molti. Loro caratteristica principale è un basso profondo e toni alti acutissimi.
Il mobile della cassa veniva proposto con le diverse colorazioni del legno, dal chiaro allo scuro fino ad un nero satinato. Le griglie rivestite di materiale nero ben trasparente al suono.
La parte frontale delle "Altus" in tutte le versioni veniva sempre decorata con cerchi cromati per tutti gli altoparlanti ma anche per le uscite bass-reflex e per i due controlli di tono per le frequenze medio-basse e alte.

l woofer utilizzato è un GDN 25/40/3 abbinato ad un doppio bass-reflex mentre il midrange, un GDM 12/60, è posizionato in un vano chiuso all'interno della cassa. Per le alte frequenze veniva montato il tweeter GDWT 9/40/5 successivamente sostituito dal GDWT 9/80.


Tipo di diffusore : bass-reflex
Numero vie : 3
Altoparlanti : 1 woofer da 25 cm, 1 midrange da 12 cm,
1 tweeter da 3 cm
Frequenze di crossover : 100/7.000 Hz
Risposta in frequenza : 40-20.000 Hz
Potenza : 70 W RMS
Impedenza nominale : 8 Ohm
Sensibilità : 91 Db / 1W / 1m
Note : attenuatori per medi e alti
Griglia : asportabile in tela
Dimensioni (L-H-P) : 33 x 65 x 31 cm
Peso : 19 kg (cadauna)

JBL-Ranger Paragon Model 44000

The JBL-Ranger Paragon Integrated Stereophonic Reproducer (JBL Model 44000) was developed by the James B. Lansing Sound inc., organization in association wiyh Colonel Richard H. Ranger. Academy Award winner and winner of the Samuel L. Warner Award in 1957, for major contributions to the improvement of sound in motion pictures.The research project which is here culminated began over ten years ago. Its original aim was to provide a master monitor for laboratory use in perfecting techniques of stereo recording.Due to the increasing interest in the stereo medium and the growing supply of source material, both on tape and disks, this precision reproducer is now made available to talented non-professional listeners ina size and styling suitable for the home music center.The new dimension introduced by stereophonic reproduction is depth. Contrary to a common misconception, three-dimensional realism cannot by achieved simply by connecting two speaker sysytems to a stereo source. As in the case of three-dimensional photography, two distinct images are reproduced and-as in the optical analogy-specialized "viewing" apparatus ai required. The ear cannot merge a divided solo performance, separated by the width of a room, any more than the unaided eye can merge the two views on a stereo slide. The JBL-Ranger Paragon, like the optical viewer, brings the third dimension into clear focus without making the listener conscious of two separated sound sources.
The fact that sound is refracted near a solid surface is well known and has been previously applied to another JBL development-the acoustic lens. If two sound sources are projected along a curved surface, the sound waves will tend to follow the curvature. Theinteraction results in the radiant dispersion of both wave trains over a wide field. Such a stereo reproducer is capable of pinpoiting individual sound sources at any point on the curved refractor, depending on the phase and amplitude characteristics of the two primary signals. A complex three-dimensional sound source actually exist across the full width of the acoustic refractor. The ear is not called upon to "fill in" the orchestra between the sources. Moreover, a true stereo effect is perceived at any point withhina large listening area.Musicans, audio engineers and others with a taste for unmodifield reality have overwhelmingly shown a preference for the JBL precision transducers used in the JBL-Ranger Paragon. These are the same professional-quality drivers found in the famous JBL Hartsfield system. Crisp bass notes generated by two JBL 150-4C's are transmitted through a pair of meticulosy flared horns. The renowed JBL 375 Drivers radiate clean-cut midrange and high notes into the acoustic refractor, and the most remote harmonics are precisely articulated by two JBL 075 Ring Radiators. Play the system from a monaural source as well as instereo. Either performance will be the finest which can be obtained in the present state of the art.
The high efficiency, smooth response and great power handling reserve of this driver have prompted its use in the world's finest theater sound systems. Fifteen inches in diameter, with rigid straight-sided cone for true piston generation of bass frequencies, the 150-4C gives verbatim reproduction of the lowest musical fundamentals.
his precision driver has gained recognition among musicians and engineers alike for its reproduction of sharp transients and high-intensity percussive sounds in the vital "presence" range. The 375 reproduces the audible frequencies above 500 cps with ease and clarity approached by no other high frequency unit.
The watchmaker's precision with which this fine transducer has been assembled is indicated by the machined surfaces of the annular horn. The unique ring diaphragm - another exclusive JBL design feature - permits clean articulation of the highhest audio frequencies. In the JBL-Ranger Paragon, it operates from 7000 cps to a point beyond the limits of human hearning.
JBL Networks are designed and tested by acoustical measurements of the actual loudspeaker systems with which they are to be used. This assures the smoothest and most realistic response possible under balancing performance to surrounding conditions.
Manufacturers General Specifications
MAX AMPLIFIER POWER: 200 watts per channel
DISPERSION: 120 degrees
SENSITIVITY: 95 dB SPL, 1W, 1 m (3.3ft)
NOMINAL DIAMETER: 380 mm / 15 in
VOICE COIL: 100 mm / 4 in Edgewood copper ribbon
MAGNETIC ASSEMBLY WEIGHT: 10.3 kg / 22 5/8 lbs
FLUX DENSITY: 0.95 tesla (9500 gauss)
SENSITIVITY: 95 dB SPL, 1 W, 1 m (3.3ft)
THROAT DIAMETER: 50 mm / 2 in
VOICE COIL: 100 mm / 4 in Edgewood copper ribbon
FLUX DENSITY: 1.5 tesla (15,000 gauss)
SENSITIVITY: 118 dB SPL, 1 W, 1 m (3.3ft)
NOMINAL DIAMETER: 98mm / 3 7/8 in
VOICE COIL: 44 mm (1 ¾ in) copper
FLUX DENSITY: 1.65 tesla (16,500 gauss)
SENSITIVITY (averaged above 4 kHz): 110 dB SPL, 1 W, 1 m (3.3ft)
DIMENSIONS: 33,3/4'' x 24½'' x 106'' (Height, Depth, Width)
FINISH: Available in the following woods and finishes: dark or light mahogany, ebony, dark or light walnut, limed oak and primavera. It is also possible to arrange for non-standart woods and for finish to match your sample.

LAE modello B453

Il diffusore rapresenta l'elemento chiave nell'impianto d'alta fedeltà.
La LAE, dopo anni di studi e continue ricerche nel settore
elettroacustico, ha raggiunto, usando una tecnologia di costruzione
avanzata,un livello tale da consentire il raggiungimento della realtà sonora.

LAE modello B453
Potenza applicabile: massima 50 W RMS, minima 20 W RMS
Impedenza nominale: 8 Ohm
Risposta in frequenza: 40 20.000 Hz ± 5 dB
Filtro: tipo LC, 3 vie, attenuazione 12 dB/ot, tagli a 1000 e 4000 Hz
Altoparlanti: 1 woofer Ø250 mm; 1 midrange a cono Ø100 mm; 1 tweeter a cupola Ø26,5 mm
Dimensioni: 540 x 350 x 290 mm (A x L x P)
Mobile: tipo bookshelf
Finitura: noce scuro

Il cuore del woofer


3-Motor / 3-Head Professional Cassette Deck. 
PLL-Servo Dual-Capstan Transport, 
Interchangeable Bias/ EQ Cards, 
Optional dbx Interface, 
LSI Function Controls.

Designed for exacting professional applications, the C-1 offers performance, features and flexibility never before available in a cassette system. Years of research and accumulated technology from a number of associated fields, including precision instrumentation and computer-based data recording, have gone into the development of this revolutionary machine. In turn, you're assured of many years of the finest reproduction performance. It will be quite a while before the cassette recordist will have a chance to own a more perfect instrument.

Digital Series 800 - PHILIPS FB-821

Philips Digital Series 800, 3 way floor type speaker system of the conductor series 8.
The conductor series 8 is the selected model selected from the speaker systems studied and developed in the laboratory in Eindhoven in the Netherlands in the Netherlands, throws in the advanced technology and the high-class material of a Philips, and is developed.

Double-density H2 chipboard of 19mm thickness is adopted as an enclosure, and 30 mm MDF with the chipboard 3 times the density of usual is used for a baffle board.

The ISOPHASE tweeter by Philips specific technology is carried in the high region.
What printed the ribbon of unguided nature on the polyimide thin film dumped of the micra glass fiber is adopted as a diaphragm. This has gained the linear phase response and the outstanding transient response.

The twin drive scheme which is parallel and drives two 18cm cone type Woofers is adopted as low-pass. Moreover, the 10cm cone type squawker is carried in the mid range.

Configuration: 3 ways, 4 speakers, a sealing scheme, and a Tallboy type
Using Driver Unit: 
For low-pass:  18cm cone type x2
For mid ranges:  10cm cone type
For high regions:  Ribbon type
Frequency Characteristic:  38 Hz - 20 kHz
Impedance:  8 Ω
Power Handling Capacity:  IEC 200W,  PEAK 300W
Sensitivity:  87 dB/1W/1m
Crossover Frequency: 450 / 4500 Hz
Dimensions (H x W x D):  860 x 270 x 330 mm
Weight:  19.5kg

UTAH 3X "IndianaLine"

Alla tradizionale linea di diffusori ormai pienamente affermatsi sui mercati internazionali Utah affianca la nuova serie Indiana Line. A prestazioni acustiche ancora superiori si accompagnano una nuova estetica ed una maggiore flessibilita' d'uso.
L'esclusivo loudspeaker and listening environment adjustement control' con regolazione sul frontale, permette il corretto adattamento della curva di risposta ad ogni ambiente di ascolto.
Il woofer a bassa frequenza di risonanza, montato in sistema accordato del 3* ordine, ha un magnete di 20 once caratteristico di altoparlanti molto piu' grandi.
Il midrange anch' esso munito della nuova sospensione foam, riproducecon precisione le frequenze centrali senza distorsione di intermodulazione dovute a deformazioni del cono.
Il tweeter grazie alla massa estremamente ridotta dell' equipaggio mobile ed al notevole gruppo magnetico, permette un arisposta particolamente estesa oltre i limiti dell udibile.
Le frequenze vengono ripartite attraverso un preciso filtro costruito con condesatori a ristretta tolleranza, bobine avvolte in aria, resistenze ceramiche e commutatori heavy duty.
Specifiche modello 3X:
woofer: 210 mm
midrange: 130 mm
tweeter: Phenolic Ring dome
Potenza: 60 W IPM 


Modes: Compact cassette, 2-channel stereo/mono
Recording System: AC bias system (bias frequency: 85KHz) Erasing System: AC push-pull system Heads: "Ferrite Solid" recording/playback, head x 1, Ferrite erasing head x 1
Motor: Electronically-controlled DC motor
Wow and Flutter: Less than 0.10% (WRMS)
Fast Winding Time: Approximately 80 seconds (C-60 tape)
Frequency Response: Standard tape; 30 to 13,000 Hz, (40 to 12,000 Hz ±3dB): Chromium dioxide tape; 30 to 16,000 Hz (40 to 13,000 Hz ±3dB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: Dolby off; 48dB (standard tape), Dolby on; 58dB (over 5KHz, standard tape) *With use of chromium dioxide tapes, signal-to-noise ratio is further improved by 4.5dB over 5KHz
Harmonic Distortion: Less than 2% (at 333Hz, 0dB)
Inputs (sensitivity to maximum level/impedance): MIC (6mm jack); 0.2mV to 90mV/20 Kohms *Low-impedance (600 ohms) microphones can be used. LINE (pin jack ) ; 60mV to 9V/470 Kohms: REC/PB ( DIN jack); 6mV to 2.7V/ 10 Kohms
Outputs (level/impedance, at meter 0dB): LINE (pin jack); 300mV/50 Kohms: REC/PB (DlN jack); 300mV/50 Kohms, HEADPHONE (6mm jack); 40mV/ 8 ohms
Semiconductors: Amplifier section: Transistors; 37, Diodes; 23, lCs; 2, Zener Diodes; 5, Light Emitting Diodes; 2, FETs;2, Motor control section: Transistors; 2, Diode; 1
Power Requirements: U.S.A. and Canada model; 120V 60Hz only or 110, 120, 130, 220, 240V (switchable 50-60Hz) *No need for pulley changing between 50Hz and 60Hz areas
Power Consumption: 15 watts (max.)
Dimensions: 430(W) x 138(H) x 310(D) mm, 16-15/16(W) x 5-7/16(H) x 12-7/32(D) inches
Weight: 8.5 Kg /18lb. 12oz.

The new Pioneer CT-F7171 is proof positive of a new level of sophistication in stereo cassette deck design and performance. First, it is a front-access deck, with the tape compartment located on the front panel. This unusual design - blends perfectly with other Pioneer components and enables uniform in-rack mounting without wasting space or sacrificing convenience. The ingenious, jam-proof tape compartment positions a loaded cassette at a 30⁰ -degree angle to facilitate access; a switched compartment illuminator allows instant confirmation of tape condition and travel direction. lts front-access design also means that all switches, meters and controls are sensibly situated in logical, user-oriented relation to the tape compartment on the front panel.
And the versatility of the Pioneer CT-F7171 is equally advanced. There is a built-in Dolby noise reduction system, Bias/EQ switches for normal or special-type tapes, a switched Recording Limiter, LED recording and Peak Level indicators, Memory Rewind, a Skip Button for high-speed tape search, rotary level controls, and much more. As for performance, the Pioneer CT-F7771 exhibits minimum wow/flutter (less than 0.10% WRMS), thanks to its electronically-controlled DC motor and precision capstan(roundness error 0.1 fi, while its ferrite-solid head adds to your assurance of high signal-to-noiseratio, wide frequency range and minimum distortion. Advanced electronics and daring design-the frontaccess CT-F7171 stereo cassette deck with Dolby is altogether a new direction in hi-fi tape equipment, from Pioneer.

All necessary deck operations including tape loading and unloading, are performed on the front panel. This daring design-a new direction in cassette deck thinking-enables you to mount the CT-F7171 in a component rack or on shelves along with your receiver, tuner, amplifier or other components.
There's no need to waste space by providing vertical (top) access to the tape compartment or controls. The ingenious, jam-proof tape compartment itself is slanted at an angle of 30* to facilitate confirmation of tape condition, aided by a switched compartment iIluminator.

Pioneer has developed a unique, simple-to-use Peak Level Indicator which detects the peak level of an incoming signal within a few milliseconds. The LED (Light-Emitting Diode) indicator will never flicker or burn out. lt reacts more quickly and with more sensitivity than any level or VU meter to the exact level of transient peak signal reaching the recording head. lt lights t o warn you when the peak level of input is +4dB from reference level, particularly handy when making Dolbyized re-cordings with low-distortion and wide dynamic range.

Noise-free recording and playback performance are assured by the Type B Dolby circuitry in the CT-F7171 By boosting certain portions of the highfrequency spectrum during recording, and deemphasizing them during playback, "tape hiss" is almost completely eliminated while those highfrequency sounds you should hear are allowed to come through clean and clear. A separate Dolby indicator and a simple push-button Dolby switch provide all the control you need.

Stability of tape travel and reliability of transport mechanisms are the most decisive factors in high fidelity cassette deck performance. Pioneer therefore has applied the finest tape transport techniques available in the CT-F7171, a double-sure combination of a highprecision capstan shaft (roundness error 0.1µ) and a dependable DC drive motor electronically controlled with a kind of servo-mechanism using solidstate devices to maintain precise drive voltage and stable rotation unaffected by power supply fluctuations. As a result, the wow/flutter characteristics of the CT-F7171 have been reduced to a ratio of less than 0.10% (WRMS)

The CT-F7171 performs perfectly with any cassette tape you wish to usestandard, low-noise/high-output or the types which are coated with special chrome and/or ferrite compounds. There are two front-panel switches, each with two positions (normal/chrome); the BIAS switch provides optimum bias current for low-distortion, while the EQ switch controls the "70 µs" playback equalizer in the CT-F7171 (for use with chrome dioxide tapes) to provide an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio by approximately 4.5dB (over 5 KHz) when measured against the normal "120 µs" type.

Anothers imple-to-use front-panel switch handles the built-in recording level limiter circuit in the CT-F7171. Distortion caused by over-level signals during recording is avoided by first setting the input level to optimum (using the large level meters and the Peak Level Indicator), then switching on the automatic limiter. This is the same kind of circuit used in studio-type equipment, not the ALC (automatic level control) design found in portable type recorders, and is therefore suitable for high fidelity use.

Extended recording and playback life, greatly improved fidelity and other advantages are assured by the ferrite-solid REC/PLAY head used in the CT-F7171. The surface of this extra-hard, precision-gap unit is mirror-finished so that a smooth, constant head-to-tape contact is maintained, even with stiff chromium dioxide tapes. The head material and design repel dust and have very small magnetic loss in the critical high-frequency region.

The CT-F7171 is equipped with two additional convenience features. One is the Memory Rewind function: with the front-panel Memory switch "ON", set the three-digit tape counter to "000" at the point on the tape from which you want to record (or play). When the tape has been recorded (or played) as far as you want it to go, flick the rewind switch and the tape will return to the "999" position - in other words, to the place where you started. The handy Skip Button also is easy to use: with the deck in the playback mode, a touch of the Skip Button will allow you to hear (monitor) the recorded sound at twice-normal speed, helping you to quickly locate any portion of the tape you desire.

To assure that your recordings are able to reproduce the widest possible range of audio signals, Pioneer has included a recording amplifier of wide dynamic range. Maximum allowable MIC input is 9V with sensitivity of 0.2mV. Maximum allowable LINE input is also 9V against a sensitivity of 60mV.
(1)Standard-size professional microphone jacks (not the miniature pin-jack types) and stereo headphone jack on front panel.
(2) Recording Peak Level Indicators. (LED)
(3) Large, reliable level meters.
(4) Rotary, friction-coupled input and output level controls for left and right channels with reference index markers.
(5) Two pairs of input/output terminals, DIN standard jack and unswitched AC outlet (300W max.).
(6) Distinctive front-access design, natural deluxe wood cabinet and metallic front. All dimensions matched for installation with other Pioneer high-fidelity components( amplifiers and tuners).

Additional Features:
1. Tape selector (NORM-CHROM) with independently-switchable bias and equalizer
2. Built-in Dolby system (ON-OFF) with indicator lamp
3. Full-auto stop mechanism
4. "SKlP" button that enables quick monitoring at twice-normal speed.
5. Recording LED peak indicators
6. Recording limiter( ON-OFF) Operates at +4dB level from reference level
7. Memory rewind switch (ON-OFF)
8. Cassette bed illumination light and switch
9. Two pairs of input and output terminals
10. Independent recording and playback level controls with memory markers
11. Wooden cabinet

Meridian 506 24-Bit CD Player

The 506 24-Bit CD Player incorporates a three-beam laser CD mechanism, for superb sound quality and disc playability. The precision-engineered turntable combines the advantages of drawer loading with the superior disk clamping normally associated with top loading players. The digital signal is decoded using the latest 24-bit dual-differential Delta Sigma digital to analogue converter, combined with a discrete class A output for superlative audio performance.This guide is designed to enable you to obtain the best possible results from the unit, whether your requirements are simply to play a disc or to programme a selection of music.If you have just purchased the 506 24-Bit CD Player, you should first turn to the section Setting up the CD player, page 15, which explains how tounpack and install the CD player correctly.

The Meridian 500 Series is a unique system of digital, analogue,and video components designed to meet the demand for  absolute quality, ease of use, and lasting value. The flexibility of the Meridian 500 Series is such that you can assemble a system as simple or as complex as you need, perfectly suited to your musical and environmental requirements, and with the ability to add to it or change it at a later date should your requirements change. The 500 Series is also compatible with the existing Meridian 200 Series and 600 Series components. Each Meridian 500 Series component is housed in a matching slim line case. Front panel controls provide access to the most important functions, and the full range of functions is available from the Meridian System Remote using a simple and intuitive contr ol interface.
500 Series communications The Meridian 500 Series includes a sophisticated communications link, to ensure that any configuration of units will work together as a fully integrated system. The 500 Series communications system allows you to control any combination of units using a single remote, and ensures that your commands from the remote are interpreted unambiguously. The communications system also allows you to extend your hi-fi system into two or three rooms, with the ability to control the sources in one room from the controller in another room.

THD: Less than -93dBFS.
Noise: Less than -93dBFS.
Mechanism: Three-beam laser.
Conversion: Dual differential 24-bit Delta Sigma.
Display: Eight character dot-matrix display for track, time, and index.
Finish: Black textured enamel and glass.
Dimensions: 88mm x 321mm x 332mm (3.46" x 12.64" x 13.07").
Weight: 6.4kg (14lbs).
Outputs Analogue: 2V fixed, class A.
Digital: co-axial, optical.
Communications: Two 5 pin 240° DIN sockets.
Consumption: 20VA.
Connecting the CD player
Back panel
The CD player provides three alternative signal outputs to allowyou to choose the highest-quality method of connection available on the system to which you are connecting. The 506 24-Bit CD Player produces an extremely low-noise low jitter electrical digital output, and this is the recommended method of connection to digital equipment. The following table lists the equipment which uses each of the three output types



Tipo di diffusore : cassa chiusa
Numero vie : 3
Altoparlanti : 1 woofer da 25,6 Cm, 1 midrange da 12,5 Cm,
1 dome tweeter da 3,6 Cm
Frequenze di crossover : 500/5.000 Hz
Risposta in frequenza : 20-20.000 Hz
Potenza : 75 W RMS
Impedenza nominale : 8 OhM
Sensibilità : 87 Db / w / m
Note : attenuatori per medi e acuti
Fusibile di protezione anteriore
Griglia : asportabile in tela
Dimensioni (L-H-P) : 32.5 x 59,1 x 30,2 Cm
Peso : 17 kg (cadauna)
Costo in lire : 188.000 Lire (cadauna)
Periodo di produzione : 1979


Servo Controlled Direct Drive Turntable with Quartz Control

The Denon DP-2000 was available as a motor unit only, with a plinth and static balance type tonearm (DP-2500), with a large plinth and no tonearm (DP-2550) or with a heavy-weight marble composite plinth (DP-2800).

The DP-2000 is not equipped with variable speed system but only with quartz lock system. The circuits of quartz oscillation, frequency divider, sampling hold and strobo-flash are same as that of the DP-6000. Start/Stop circuit, brake control circuit and motor driving system are noticeably different from that of the DP-6000. The motor driving system controls the motor by means of modulating the amplitude of commercial power source 75V (AC) in the same way as DP-3000.

- Frequency Dividing
- Sampling Hold
- Play/Stop Memory
- Brake Time Setting
- Motor Driving System
- Comparsion and Brake Control
- 33/45 Time Constant Change-Over
- Head Amplifier and Pulse Shaping- Delay

 The frequency of oscilation by quartz is 33.75 KHz and itis divided to 1/3, 1/9 and 1/9 when the table turns at rotation speed of 33 r.p.m. The frequency, demultipled to 138.8 Hz is added to the sampling hold circuit. In case of the rotation speed of 45 r.p.m. the frequency is divided to 1/2, 1/10 and 1/9 and the frequency is demultipled to 187.5 Hz In addition as frequency for strobo-flash, these frequencies are further divided to 1/2, and they are 69.44 Hz and 93.75 Hz for 33 r.p.m. and 45 r.p.m. respectively.

Drive system: Direct drive by AC servo motor
Speed control: Frequency detection servo motor phase locked to a quartz crystal oscillator
Speed: 33.33 and 45rpm
Speed selection: Slide switch
Wow and flutter: Less than 0.015% WRMS
S/N ratio: Over 75dB (DIN-B rated)
Starting time: Less than 1.5 seconds
Absolute speed accuracy: Over 99.998%

Turntable platter: Aluminium alloy diecast, 30cm diameter


Denon DA-401

Denon DA 401 tonearm
The DA-401 has its effective mass reduced to improve applicability to every kind of cartridge, and to prevent intermodulation distortion.

Partial resonance or external vibration is reduced by the dynamic damping mechanism to attain the original performance of the cartridge.

DA-401 Light Weight Tonearm (Universal Type)Effective mass of the tonearm reduced to improve applicability to every kind of cartridge and to prevent intermodulationdistortion. Partial resonance or external vibration reduced by the dynamic damping mechanism to attain the original performance of the cartridge.Low frequency limit rof the cutting on the disc is approximately 20 Hz, therefore, the signal at lower frequencies than that is not supposed to come out. However, subsonic noise under 4-5 Hz tends to be reproduced larger due to the warpage of the record disc.For the audio instruments which originally deal with the audible range signal, signal close to DC is not a close friend. Such evil effect as modulation distortion is caused on the signal in the audible range due to the undesirable low frequency range signal being sent to the amplifier or the speaker. The structure where the tonearm truthfully moves against the movement of less than 10 or so Hz to forbid the cartridge to provide output, that is of course attained by minimizing the effective mass of the tonearm. Yes, tonearm like the ai is what we want, if possible at all.

Effective mass of the tonearm including the weight of the cartridge, the compliance of the vibration system of the cartridge and the cut-off frequency (fL) in the low frequency range are inter-related. If this (fL) is too low, tonearm can not perfectly follow the movement due to the warpage of the record disc, etc., and result inn the vobration of the stylus instead. The desirable setting value of (fL) is approximately 10Hz. Cartridges available on the market tend to show too low (fL) when combined with ordinary tonearm. And it will particulary be difficult to attain the original performance of the high compliance cartridge sufficiently. In addition to the highly precise mechanism, the DA-401 is equipped with the lightest possible pipe arm and head shell to reduce the effective masss to prevent (fL) from becoming too low. The arm pipe is a solidified hard light alloy pipe, and hard resin for the head shell.Still more effective dynamics damping mechanism employed for this light weight arm. As it progresses towards the lighter weight, one side view would reveal the fact that the mechanical strength in various parts is decreased and result in causing the partial resonance and deteriorates the sound quality in the mid range. The dynamic damping mechanism employed for the DA-401 is a structure having damper rubber of adequate viscocity be tween the tonearm body and the pipe. This dynamic damping action is the key to the problem of the vibration that could not be solved inn the past. Now the problem effectively solved, the vibration transmitted from the arm base is effectively reduced and the result is the radical reductio in the partial resonance in the part composing the tonearm.

Specifications DA-401
Type: Static balance type, integrated tonearm
Overall length: 322mm
Effective length: 244mm
Overhang: 14mm
Tracking error: Less than 2.5 degrees
Hight adjustment range: 41-70mm (from arm board surface to arm pipe center)
Stylus force adjustment system: Dial scale system, 2g per rotation (0.lg subdivision)
Acceptable weight of cartridge: 4-6g (small weight), 6-10 g (large weight)
Head shell: Specially rigitized resin, weighing approx. 4g (excluding screws and nuts)
Output cord: Low capacitance cord, with 5P connector
Anti-skating system: Magnetically controlled (disengagement possible)
Arm lifter: Oil damped
Bearings: High precision pivot bearings and miniature bearings

Head connector: Plug-in type with fixing screw, 4P connector (all contact portion gold plated)

Denon DP-2000 and Da-401